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Sega NAOMI

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(Redirected from Sega NAOMI Multiboard)
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Naomi case.jpg
Fast facts on Sega NAOMI
Manufacturer: Sega
Variants: Sega NAOMI GD-ROM, Sega NAOMI Multiboard, Sega Dreamcast, Atomiswave, Sega Aurora
Add-ons: GD-ROM
Release Date RRP Code
Arcade
JP
1998-09 ¥?  ?
Arcade
US
1998 $1,995[1]  ?
Arcade
World
1998  ?


The NAOMI (New Arcade Operation Machine Idea) is an arcade system released by Sega in 1998. It was designed as a successor to Sega Model 3 hardware, using a similar architecture to the Sega Dreamcast.

The NAOMI was succeeded by the Sega Hikaru and Sega NAOMI 2 boards, though having out-lasted the NAOMI 2, Hikaru and Sega Aurora. The Sega Chihiro, or possibly even the Sega Lindbergh, could also be seen as successors.

History

The NAOMI debuted at a time when traditional arcades were on a decline, and so was engineered to be a mass-produced, cost-effective machine reliant on large game ROM cartridges which could be interchanged by the arcade operator. This is contrary to systems such as the Model 3, in which each board, despite sharing largely the same specifications, would be bespoke, with the built-in ROMs being flashed with games during the manufacturing process. This is not the first time such an idea was utilised by Sega, but never before had technology been used for a cutting-edge Sega arcade specification.

Unlike most hardware platforms in the arcade industry, NAOMI was widely licensed for use by other manufacturers, many of which were former rivals to Sega, such as Taito, Capcom and Namco. It is also one of the longest-serving arcade boards, being supported from 1998 to 2009. It is a platform where many top-rated Sega franchises were born, including Virtua Tennis, Samba de Amigo, Crazy Taxi and Monkey Ball.

Hardware

The NAOMI shares the same basic system architecture as the Dreamcast, with both systems using the same Hitachi SH-4 CPU and Yamaha AICA based sound system, along with different revisions of the PowerVR Series 2 GPU architecture. While the CPU of the NAOMI and Dreamcast operate at the same clock frequency, the NAOMI packs twice as much system and graphics memory, four times as much sound memory, a faster PowerVR2 graphics processor, faster VRAM bandwidth,[n 1] and FPGA with additional processing. Multiple NAOMI boards can also be 'stacked' together to achieve better graphics performance, or for a multi-monitor setup.

After The House of the Dead 2, a newer revision of the PowerVR2 graphics chip was used in subsequent NAOMI systems.[2] According to VideoLogic's president and CEO, Hossein Yassaie, in September 1998: "With Dreamcast, PowerVR set out to create a new standard in 3D graphics for console gaming; now with Sega’s Naomi, we will deliver unprecedented levels of 3D performance to arcade systems".[4]

Another key difference between NAOMI and Dreamcast lies in the game-media - the NAOMI primarily uses ROM PC (printed circuit) boards (i.e. large game cartridges) with up to 168 MB of usable data (more expensive but with faster loading), while the Dreamcast uses GD-ROM optical-storage with up to 1GB of storage (at the expense of load times). The NAOMI was extended in 1999 so that it could interface with GD-ROM-based arcade games. This system uses standard PC SDR-DIMM modules which are battery backed-up for storing game data. The game data is read from the GD-ROM at bootup, stored onto the SDR RAM to which the NAOMI reads from during game. This leaves less wear on the GD-ROM drive as it's only used when the memory is empty or corrupted, else it will use the SDR RAM for boot-up every subsequent power on after checking the data integrity. If the battery fails, the system is left turned off for several days or the game GD-ROM is changed, the game will be reloaded from the GD-ROM drive.

Along with the standard version, three more variants also exist:

  • First Edition — The initial release of NAOMI hardware was housed in an aluminium shell, similar in design to some versions of the earlier Model 2 and Model 3 system hardware. This version is known to be used in House of the Dead 2 arcade machines, with the game ROM board pre-installed inside the case. It is unknown whether this is a unique hardware variant specifically for House of the Dead 2, or whether it is compatible with later NAOMI releases. This prototype uses an earlier revision of the PowerVR2 graphics processor.[2]
  • Multiboard — Several NAOMI motherboards joined onto a single board which connects the multiple boards together to created a more powerful parallel processing system.
  • Satellite Terminal — independent NAOMI cabinets connected to a master one, used first by Derby Owners Club.

NAOMI boards can be used in special game cabinets (NAOMI Universal Cabinet) where a theoretical maximum of sixteen boards can be used in a parallel processing format.

The NAOMI multiboard setup uses a different BIOS chip than a regular NAOMI to handle all the boards but the whole system only uses one copy of the game cartridge, of which only four games were released.

Technical Specifications

NAOMI Specifications

See Sega Dreamcast technical specifications for more details on the capabilities of the general Dreamcast/Naomi hardware architecture, though the specifications for the Naomi differ from the Dreamcast in various ways, as listed below.[2]

Main

Graphics

  • GPU: 2 core processors (SH‑4 SIMD, PowerVR2)
    • Cores: 6 cores (SH‑4 SIMD, 5 PowerVR2 cores)
  • GPU geometry processor: Hitachi SH-4 SIMD @ 200 MHz
  • GPU rasterizer: NEC-VideoLogic PowerVR2 @ 100 MHz[13]
  • DAC: Sega 315‑6145 (Rohm BU1426KS) @ 35.4695 MHz[20]
    • Bus width: 24‑bit
  • Display resolution: 320×240 to 800×608 pixels, progressive scan, JAMMA/VGA
    • Internal resolution: 320×240 to 1600×1200 pixels
  • Color depth: 16-bit RGB to 32‑bit ARGB, 65,536 to 16,777,216 colors (24‑bit color) with 8‑bit (256 levels) alpha blending, YUV and RGB color space, color key overlay
  • Framebuffer:
  • VRAM: 16 MB (effectively up to 42–127 MB with texture compression)
  • Floating-point performance: 2.4 GFLOPS
    • SH-4 SIMD: 1.4 GFLOPS geometry
    • PowerVR2: 1 GFLOPS rendering
  • Geometry pipeline: SH‑4 SIMD
    • Geometry bandwidth: 3.2 GB/s
    • Floating‑point performance: 1.4 GFLOPS
  • Rendering fillrate:
  • Texture fillrate:[n 18]
    • 6 GTexels/s: Maximum fillrate for opaque polygons
    • 1 GTexel/s: Average fillrate for translucent and opaque polygons
    • 200 MTexels/s: Minimum fillrate for translucent polygons with hardware sort depth of 60
  • SH-4 Polygon T&L Geometry: 1.4 GFLOPS
    • Matrix transformations: 50 million vertices/s
    • Perspective transformations: 16.6 million vertices/sec, 16 million polygons/s
    • 1 light source: 14.2 million vertices/s, 14 million polygons/s
    • 4 light sources: 6.89 million vertices/s, 6.8 million polygons/s
  • CLX2 polygon rendering: Front‑facing polygons drawn on screen, not including overdrawn and back‑facing polygons
    • 16 million vertices/s[n 19]
    • 14 million polygons/s: Lighting, flat shading[n 20]
    • 12 million polygons/s: Lighting, texture mapping[n 21]
    • 10 million polygons/s: Lighting, texture mapping, shadows, modifier volumes[n 22]
    • 8.3 million polygons/s: Lighting, texture mapping, Gouraud shading, shadows, modifier volumes, bump mapping[n 23]
    • 8.2 million polygons/s: Lighting, texture mapping, anisotropic filtering[n 24]
    • 6.2 million polygons/s: Lighting, texture mapping, Gouraud shading, shadows, modifier volumes, bump mapping, anisotropic filtering, translucent polygons[n 25]
  • 2D sprite capabilities: Sprites rendered as textured translucent quad polygons
    • Colors per sprite: 16 colors (4-bit color) to 16,777,216 colors (24-bit color)
    • Sprite sizes: 8×8 texels (224 bytes) to 1024×1024 texels (386.2 KB)
    • Sprite fillrate: 200 MTexels/s
    • Maximum sprites per frame: 52,083 sprites (8×8, 60 FPS)
    • Maximum texels per scanline: 13,888 texels (60 FPS)
    • Maximum sprites per scanline: 1736 sprites (60 FPS)

Sound

Memory

Bandwidth

  • Internal processor cache bandwidth:
  • RAM/ROM memory bandwidth: 2.636–3.224 GB/s
  • System RAM bandwidth: 2 GB/s
  • System ROM bandwidth: 24 MB/s
  • Cartridge ROM bandwidth: 612 MB/s to 1.2 GB/s[n 40]
    • Sega 1998 format: 612 MB/s[n 41]
    • Sega 1999/2005 format: 900 MB/s[n 42]
    • Namco 2000 format: 1.2 GB/s[n 43]
    • Note: High-speed access allows ROM cartridge to effectively be used as RAM.[27]
  • Cartridge RAM bandwidth: 28–100 MB/s[n 44]

NAOMI GD-ROM Specifications

The NAOMI GD-ROM, released in 1999, is identical to the standard NAOMI, but uses GD-ROM discs for storage instead of ROM cartridges. It comes with a DIMM Board, which is very similar to a ROM cartridge, but with RAM instead of ROM. When a game is installed, the GD ROM content is loaded onto the DIMM Board RAM, so that the game data runs from the DIMM Board rather than the GD-ROM disc.

  • Board composition: Motherboard, Internal ROM Board, Filter Board, I/O Board, DIMM Board
  • Storage: GD-ROM disc drive @ 12× speed, 1 GB per GD-ROM disc
    • GD-ROM transfer rate: 1800 KB/s

Memory

  • Overall memory: 66–570 MB
  • System RAM: 57,408 KB (56.0625 MB)
  • Internal processor cache: 110,286 bytes (107.701 KB)
  • System ROM: 2048.125 KB (2.0001 MB)
  • DIMM Board RAM: 8–512 MB DIMM SDRAM[43]

Bandwidth

  • RAM bandwidth: 3 GB/s
    • Main RAM: 800 MB/s
    • VRAM: 1 GB/s
    • Sound RAM: 132 MB/s
    • SRAM: 44 MB/s
    • DIMM RAM: 1.064–2.128 GB/s[n 45]

NAOMI Multiboard Specifications

The NAOMI Multiboard, released in 1999, stacks together multiple NAOMI system boards for parallel processing in a single arcade system, ranging from 2 to 16 system boards. Since the 16‑board variant is not known to have been used by any games, the following specifications are for the 2‑board and 4‑board variants:

  • Board composition: 2–4 NAOMI system boards

Main

  • CPU: 2–4× Hitachi SH-4 @ 200 MHz
    • Performance: 720–1440 MIPS, 2.8–5.6 GFLOPS
  • MCU: 2–4× Sega Custom Z80 @ 21.333 MHz (8‑bit & 16‑bit instructions @ 6–12 MIPS)
  • FPGA: 4–8× FPGA
    • 2–4× Altera FLEX EPF8452AQC160‑3 FPGA @ 125 MHz
    • 2–4× Sega 315‑6188 (Altera EPC1064PC8) FPGA Configuration Device @ 6 MHz

Graphics

  • GPU: 4–8 core processors (2–4 SH‑4 SIMD, 2–4 PowerVR2)
    • Cores: 12–24 cores (2–4 SH‑4 SIMD, 10–20 PowerVR2 cores)
  • Display resolution: 2–3 monitors, 640×240 to 2400×608, progressive scan, widescreen JAMMA/VGA
    • Internal resolution: 640×240 to 1600×1200 pixels per board
  • Floating-point performance: 4–9 GFLOPS
    • SH-4 SIMD: 2.8–5.6 GFLOPS geometry
    • PowerVR2: 2–4 GFLOPS rendering
  • Geometry pipeline: 2–4 SH‑4 SIMD
    • Geometry bandwidth: 6–12 GB/s
    • Floating‑point performance: 2.8–5.6 GFLOPS
  • Rendering fillrate:
    • 12–24 GPixels/s: Maximum fillrate for opaque polygons
    • 2–4 GPixels/s: Average fillrate for translucent and opaque polygons
    • 400–800 MPixels/s: Minimum fillrate for translucent polygons with hardware sort depth of 60
  • Texture fillrate:
    • 12–24 GTexels/s: Maximum fillrate for opaque polygons
    • 2–4 GTexels/s: Average fillrate for translucent and opaque polygons
    • 400–800 MTexels/s: Minimum fillrate for translucent polygons with hardware sort depth of 60
  • SH-4 polygon T&L geometry:
    • Matrix transformations: 100–200 million vertices/s
    • Perspective transformations: 32–64 million polygons/s
    • Lighting calculations: 28–56 million polygons/s
  • CLX2 polygon rendering:
    • 32–64 million vertices/sec
    • 28–56 million polygons/s: Lighting, flat shading
    • 24–48 million polygons/s: Lighting, texture mapping
    • 20–40 million polygons/s: Lighting, texture mapping, shadows, modifier volumes
    • 16–32 million polygons/s: Lighting, texture mapping, Gouraud shading, shadows, modifier volumes, bump mapping
    • 16–32 million polygons/s: Lighting, texture mapping, anisotropic filtering

Sound

Memory

  • System RAM: 112–224 MB
    • Main RAM: 64–128 MB
    • VRAM: 32–64 MB
    • Sound RAM: 16–32 MB
    • SRAM: 64–128 KB
  • Internal processor cache: 220,572–441,144 bytes (215.402–430.804 KB)
  • System ROM: 4096.25–8192.5 KB (4–8 MB BIOS EPROM, 256–512 bytes EEPROM)

Bandwidth

  • System RAM bandwidth: 4–8 GB/s
  • Internal processor cache bandwidth:
    • SH4: 3.2–6.4 GB/s[n 46]
    • PowerVR2: 41–83 GB/s
    • AICA: 512–1024 MB/s[n 48]
  • System ROM bandwidth: 48–96 MB/s

Gallery

First Edition

Main version

List of Games

NAOMI

Distributed by Capcom

Distributed by Namco

NAOMI GD-ROM

Distributed by Capcom

Distributed by Taito

NAOMI Multiboard

NAOMI Satellite Terminal

Promotional material

Notes

  1. 125 MHz,[2][3] compared to the Dreamcast's 100 MHz
  2. 2 instructions per cycle
  3. 7 floating-point operations per cycle
  4. Scaled for high-end arcade technology,[14] with parallel ISP cores and increased PE processing elements within processor.[15] NAOMI has average fillrate of 1 gigapixel/sec,[4] twice that of the Dreamcast's average 500 megapixels/sec fillrate.[16]
  5. 14 cycles/polygon per ISP FPU, 51 floating-point operations per polygon, 102 floating-point operations per 14 cyclesMedia:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf[18]Media:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf[19]
  6. Flat/Gouraud shading, 43 bytes double-buffered
  7. Gouraud shading, 62 bytes double-buffered
  8. Textured, Gouraud shading, bump mapping, 72 bytes double-buffered
  9. Textured, Gouraud shading, modifier volumes, 75 bytes double-buffered
  10. Sprite, quad, 192 bytes double-buffered
  11. 8×8 texture, 16 colors
  12. 8×8×4-bit
  13. 1024×1024×24-bit
  14. 2048×2048×16-bit
  15. 32 pixels/cycle per ISP,Media:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf[28] 1 pixel per PE (processor element),[15]Media:Patent US20030025695.pdf[29] 64 PE (32 PE per ISP), 3.2 gigapixels/sec per ISP[30]
  16. 10 pixels per cycle, 6 PEs (processor elements) per pixel, 500 megapixels/sec per ISP
  17. 60 layers depth, 2 pixels per cycle, 32 PEs per pixel, 100 megapixels/sec per ISP
  18. Same as pixel rendering fillrate
  19. 14 cycles per 3 vertices, per ISP FPU
  20. 14 cycles/polygon per ISP FPU, 200,000–317,000 polygons per scene, 100–400 pixels per polygon
  21. Bump mapping, 200,000–260,000 polygons per scene, 100–500 texels per polygon
  22. Bump mapping, 100,000–219,000 polygons per scene, 100–600 texels per polygon
  23. 138,888 polygons per scene, 100–700 texels per polygon
  24. 137,664 polygons per scene,[31] 100–700 texels per polygon
  25. 103,000–137,000 polygons per scene, 32 texels per polygon
  26. 122,958 bytes
  27. 26,178 bytes: 8 KB instruction cache, 16 KB data cache, 64 bytes store queue cache, 1538 bytes registers
  28. 47,104 bytes: 8.25 KB register memory, 24.5 KB ISP cache, 13 KB TSP cache, 256 bytes FIFO buffer
  29. 32,780 bytes: 32 KB sound registers, 8 bytes RTC registers, 4 bytes FIFO buffer
  30. 16,896 bytes: 512 bytes RAM, 16 KB ROM[8]
  31. 128‑bit, 200 MHz
  32. 2304‑bit, 100 MHz: 32-bit TA tile buffer,Media:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf[34] 2x 32-bit ISP registers, 32-bit TSP registers,[35] 2x 1024-bit ISP PE Arrays,[15] 64-bit TSP Texture Cache,Media:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf[28] 32-bit TSP Tile Accumulation Buffer, 32-bit Secondary Accumulation Buffer
  33. 32‑bit, 67 MHz
  34. 64‑bit, 100 MHz, Hitachi HM5264165FTT‑A60[36]
  35. 64‑bit, 125 MHz, Hynix HY57V161610DTC‑8[3]
  36. 16‑bit, 66 MHz,Media:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf[21] Samsung KM416S4030[37]
  37. 16‑bit, 22 MHz, Hitachi HM62256[38]
  38. 16‑bit, 10 MHzMedia:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf[21]
  39. 16‑bit, 2 MHz[39]
  40. 2× 64‑bit connectors, 1× 16‑bit connector
  41. 34 MHz
  42. 50 MHz[40]
  43. 66.666667 MHz[41][42]
  44. 8/16‑bit, 28–50 MHz
  45. 1/2× 64‑bit, 133 MHz[43][44]
  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 128/256‑bit
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 47.3 32/64‑bit
  48. 64/128‑bit

References

  1. NAOMI Technical Overview
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Sega NAOMI (MAME)
  3. 3.0 3.1 File:HY57V161610D datasheet.pdf
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Press release: 1998-09-17: SEGA SELECTS POWERVR SERIES2 AS 3D GRAPHICS TECHNOLOGY FOR NEW ARCADE SYSTEM
  5. 5.0 5.1 File:NAOMI 1998 Press Release JP.pdf
  6. File:SH-4 Software Manual.pdf
  7. Obsolete Microprocessors
  8. 8.0 8.1 File:TMP90PH44 datasheet.pdf
  9. 9.0 9.1 File:PIC12C508A datasheet.pdf
  10. 10.0 10.1 File:PIC16C621A datasheet.pdf
  11. File:EPF8452A datasheet.pdf
  12. File:EPC1064 datasheet.pdf
  13. 13.0 13.1 Sega NAOMI (Historic MAME)
  14. File:PowerVR.pdf, page 2
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 File:PowerVR.pdf, page 3
  16. File:Edge UK 067.pdf, page 11
  17. File:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf, page 110
  18. 18.0 18.1 File:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf, page 95
  19. File:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf, page 203
  20. File:BU142 datasheet.pdf
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 File:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf
  22. File:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf, page 102
  23. File:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf, page 152
  24. File:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf, page 199
  25. File:PowerVR2DCFeaturesUnderWindowsCE.pdf, page 9
  26. File:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf, page 144
  27. 27.0 27.1 Hideki Sato Sega Interview (Edge)
  28. 28.0 28.1 File:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf, page 96
  29. File:Patent US20030025695.pdf
  30. Sega Dreamcast: Implementation (IEEE)
  31. Homebrew Test
  32. Asian Dynamite (MAME)
  33. File:XCF01S datasheet.pdf
  34. File:DreamcastDevBoxSystemArchitecture.pdf, page 165
  35. PowerVR (Dreamcast Hardware)
  36. File:HM5264 datasheet.pdf
  37. File:KM416S4030C datasheet.pdf
  38. File:HM62256B datasheet.pdf
  39. File:AT93C46 datasheet.pdf
  40. File:S29GL-N datasheet.pdf
  41. Sega NAOMI (ROM Dumping)
  42. File:DA28F640J5 datasheet.pdf
  43. 43.0 43.1 Sega NAOMI DIMM board and GD-ROM
  44. File:M366S3323CT0 datasheet.pdf
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Arcade Variants   Sega NAOMI | Atomiswave | Sega Aurora
Other Articles Hardware Comparison | History (Development | Release | Decline and Legacy) | List of Games