From Sega Retro
|Merged with: Maruzen Co. Ltd (株式会社丸善)|
|Headquarters: Honjō, Saitama Prefecture, Japan (formerly: Chiyoda, Tokyo)|
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Canelon Toys (株式会社キャネロン, Kabushiki Gaisha Kyaneron), currently Canelon Chemicals Co. Ltd (キャネロン化工株式会社, Kyaneron Kakō Kabushiki Gaisha), a division of Maruzen Co. Ltd (株式会社丸善, Kabushiki Gaisha Maruzen), is a plastic products manufacturing company (plastic containers, trays, packaging and growing systems for the horticultural and food industries) and former toy manufacturer based in Honjō, Japan.
The history of the company can be traced back to the Meiji era, when Japanese entrepreneur and pioneer of the Japanese celluloid industry Seijiro Nagamine (永峰清次郎, Nagamine Seijiro), an Edo-style tortoiseshell craftsman who had just started production of celluloid combs, manufactured celluloid blow ball pipes known as "Fukiage balls" (吹き上げ玉, Fukiage-dama) in 1894, the first celluloid toys in the history of Japan, produced in his workshop called Nagamine Seijiro Shoten (永峰清次郎商店, lit. Seijiro Nagamine Store) established in 1884, a business that he runned with the help of his two sons Seizaburo Nagamine (永峰誠三郎, Nagamine Seizaburo) and Kanematsu Nagamine (永峰兼松, Nagamine Kanematsu).
Three years later in 1897, Gendō Tsuboi (坪井玄道) introduced in Japan the first table tennis ball and in the next year in 1898 production of table tennis balls begins at Seijiro Nagamine's workshop which had just began exporting celluloid blow ball pipes in that year, shipping fifty dozens to Chongqing in China.
In 1911 Seijiro Nagamine invented the blow molding method of manufacturing dolls, which he patented in 1913 and in 1915 Nagamine's celluloid dolls manufactured with this method were ehxibited for the first time outside Japan at the Panama–Pacific International Exposition held in San Francisco.
The demand for Japanese toys increased due to the outbreak of World War I a year before in 1914 and in June 1918 the Japan Celluloid Products Export and Trade Association (日本セルロイド製品同業組合連合会, Nihon Seruroido Seihin Dōgyō Kumiai Rengō-kai) was established with the permission of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce of Japan, for the purpose of conducting export inspections and eliminating defective products in the industry and Seijiro Nagamine who at the time had three large manufacturing plants in Tokyo Metropolis, located in the special wards of Chiyoda, Kōtō and Arakawa, was appointed the representative for the Tokyo region, later changing the name of the company to Nagamine Celluloid Industry Co. Ltd. (永峰セルロイド工業株式会社, Nagamine Seruroido Kogyo Kabushiki Gaisha) also known as Nagamine Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (株式会社永峰化成工業, Kabushiki Gaisha Nagamine Kasei Kogyo). Export value of celluloid toys exceeded 350 million yen in that year but after only two years in 1920, demand decreased substantially and orders plummeted to less than one quarter. It was also arround that time in 1920 that the company started trading as Chiyoda Kogyo Kaisha, Ltd (千代田工業株式会社, Chiyoda Industry Co. Ltd.) for some time, returning to its former name some years later.
In 1924 economy recovered and both exports and domestic consumption increased and three years later in 1927 the production volume was the largest since the decline in demand four years before. This however caused a series of business difficulties with the major of them being a drop in prices.
The Japanese industry of celluloid enjoyed a decade of prosperity during the 1930s with a record of billions in production and with an export value of 20 million yen in 1935, supplanted only by a 42 million yen export value in 1937.
However in 1940 after Europe banned imports of Japanese toys due to the outbreak of World War II, the company ceased operations until 1945, when despite the catastrophic impact, it managed to resume production at the end of the war.
On July 18, 1949 Nagamine Celluloid Industry Co. Ltd. (永峰セルロイド工業株式会社) amalgamated Tokyo-based trading company, Nagamine Shoji Co. Ltd (永峰商事株式会社), establishing branch offices in the cities of Osaka, Sendai, Takaoka and Fukuoka, adopting the name of the amalgamated company sometime later and becoming famous in the 1960s and 1970s for its line of plastic toys and dolls and mechanical tin toys (Roly Poly, Elephant Merry-Go-Round, etc) which were sold in Japan and abroad under the brand name "Canelon" (キャネロン, Kyaneron), a trademark for articles of a non-inflammable type of rigid vinyl introduced by the company in August 1953 (being stimulated, by the importation of polyvinyl chloride from the United States after the war, Japanese toymakers have succeeded in replacing the higly flammable celluloid, by non-inflammable plastic after painstaking research), which gained high reputation and were subsequently exported to the United States and Canada two months later in October of the same year, replacing articles of their previous trademarks "Chiyoloid" (チヨロイド, Chiyoroido) and "Nack" (ナック , Nakku).
Sometime in 1986, the company changed its name to Canelon Co. Ltd. (named after its well known brand of toys), producing mostly toys for babies, including several from the Miffy series of toys for children, sold by Sega in Japan, like the Busy Gym, later manufactured and distributed exclusively by Sega Toys.
In 2002 the company was acquired by Maruzen Co. Ltd (株式会社丸善) which had been investing capital in the company since 1989, becoming Canelon Chemicals Co. Ltd. (キャネロン化工株式会社).
Nagamine's celluloid dolls, as seen in 1917 (Nagamine's logo in the background)
A pair of Sudare (window blinds) manufactured by the company
- Info about Maruzen Co, Ltd and its two subsidiary companies, E-Half Co, Ltd and Canelon Co, Ltd at www.foomajapan.jp
- Japanese stuffed toy line of dolls "Monchhichi" manufactured by Sekiguchi Co. Ltd. at www.wikipedia.org
- Revolutionary worker Masanosuke Watanabe (渡辺 政之輔), former laborer of Nagamine Celluloid Co. Ltd at www.wikipedia.org
- Japanese feminist and labor activist Tanno Setsu (丹野セツ), wife of Masanosuke Watanabe (渡辺 政之輔) at www.wikipedia.org
- Japanese entrepreneur Keiji Iwakami (岩上敬二), founder of Iwakami Industry Co. Ltd. (岩上工業株式会社, Iwakami Kogyo Kabushiki Gaisha) and former employee of Nagamine Celluloid Co. Ltd. at iwakamikogyo.wixsite.com (archived)
- Legendary Japanese radio presenter and Seijiro Nagamine's (永峰清次郎) grandson, Yasuo Nagamine (永峰康雄), best known by his stage name Tatsuya Katsura (桂竜也) at ja.wikipedia.org
- Japanese freelance writer Eitaro Nagamine (永峰英太郎), Yasuo Nagamine's (永峰康雄) eldest son and Seijiro Nagamine's (永峰清次郎) great grandson at gentosha-go.com (archived)
- A celluloid soap box of the brand "Chiyoloid" manufactured by Nagamine Celluloid Industry Co. Ltd. in the 1930s, from the collection of the Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences of New South Wales, Australia at collection.maas.museum
- "The Repatriation of Celluloid Dolls from the USA" (アメリカ帰りのセルロイド人形), a documentary by Daicel Corporation and Tokyo-based satellite broadcasting station BS-TBS about Daicel's own roots and the birth of the Japanese celluloid industry with references to Mr. Seijiro Nagamine (永峰清次郎) at www.youtube.com
- "The Repatriation of Celluloid Dolls from the USA" (アメリカ帰りのセルロイド人形), Japanese version at www.youtube.com
- "The Repatriation of Celluloid Dolls from the USA" (从美国归来的赛璐珞玩偶), Chinese version at www.youtube.com
- "Plastics" (1944), a film by Young America Films, Inc. surveying the growth of the plastic industry, stressing the new materials developed during World War II at archive.org
- https://i.ibb.co/WthVD8z/Glimpses-of-East-Asia-Book-JP-1935-Volume-18-page-54.jpg (archive.today)
- File:History of Japanese Celluloid Industry JP Part 2.pdf, page 9
- File:CanelonToys Box.jpg
- File:CanelonToys Doll.jpg
- File:CanelonToys Baby Toy.jpg
- File:CanelonToys Piano.jpg
- File:Japan in the Taisho Era Book JP 1917 (by Nishizawa, Iwata).pdf, page 725
- File:Japan in the Taisho Era Book JP 1917 (by Nishizawa, Iwata).pdf, page 726
- File:The Indo-Japanese Business Directory 1938-1939 Book JP (by Nakaya Misuma Company Limited).pdf, page 211
- File:The Indo-Japanese Business Directory 1938-1939 Book JP (by Nakaya Misuma Company Limited).pdf, page 244
- File:TheChemistandDruggist UK 1920-06-26.pdf, page 204
- File:Japan and Her Exhibits at the Panama-Pacific International Exhibition Book JP 1915 (by Hakurankwai Kyokwai, Tokyo).pdf, page 282
- File:Japan and Her Exhibits at the Panama-Pacific International Exhibition Book JP 1915 (by Hakurankwai Kyokwai, Tokyo).pdf, page 466
- File:Celluloid Library Memoir House of Yokohama; Conference Osaka 2008.pdf, page 18
- File:Yokohama Port and Celluloid Toys JP Research Report (by Kazuhiko Matsuo).pdf, page 6
- File:Yokohama Port and Celluloid Toys JP Research Report (by Kazuhiko Matsuo).pdf, page 7
- http://www.celluloidhouse.com/salon35.htm (Wayback Machine: 2019-05-31 09:26)
- File:Celluloid Library Memoir House of Yokohama; Conference Osaka 2008.pdf, page 21
- File:Seizaburo Nagamine, Database for Japanese Studies (Eighth Edition); Human Resources Information 1928-07-03 (by Nagoya University Graduate School of Law).pdf
- http://www.celluloidhouse.com/list.htm (Wayback Machine: 2008-11-21 20:41)
- https://world-tt.com/ps_info/ps_report_detail.php?bn=5&pg=HEAD&page=BACK&rpcdno=1513#1513 (archive.today)
- File:Celluloid Library Memoir House of Yokohama; Conference Osaka 2008.pdf, page 16
- https://www.daicel.com/news/2017/20171130_109.html (Wayback Machine: 2020-02-15 15:00)
- http://www.celluloidhouse.com/salon142.html (Wayback Machine: 2019-09-08 19:27)
- http://www.nippra.or.jp/enkaku.html (Wayback Machine: 2016-12-20 21:01)
- File:Working Rules for Financial Statements and Pre-WW2 Financial Reporting of Japanese Industrial Firms 2008-03 (by Masayoshi Noguchi and Michiyasu Nakajima).pdf, page 10
- File:Working Rules for Financial Statements and Pre-WW2 Financial Reporting of Japanese Industrial Firms 2008-03 (by Masayoshi Noguchi and Michiyasu Nakajima).pdf, page 14
- File:Working Rules for Financial Statements and Pre-WW2 Financial Reporting of Japanese Industrial Firms 2008-03 (by Masayoshi Noguchi and Michiyasu Nakajima).pdf, page 25
- File:The Japan Year Book 1920-1921 Book JP (by Yoshitaro Takenobu).pdf, page 687
- File:The Japan Year Book 1923 Book JP (by Yoshitaro Takenobu).pdf, page 656
- File:The Social Democratic Movement in Prewar Japan Book US 1966 (by George Oakley Totten).pdf, page 163
- https://www.i-repository.net/il/meta_pub/G0000381eigyo_EIGY00762 (archive.today)
- File:Production Organizations in Japanese Economic Development Book JP 2007-01-18 (by Tetsuji Okazaki).pdf, page 190
- File:Production Organizations in Japanese Economic Development Book JP 2007-01-18 (by Tetsuji Okazaki).pdf, page 191
- File:Production Organizations in Japanese Economic Development Book JP 2007-01-18 (by Tetsuji Okazaki).pdf, page 208
- File:Production Organizations in Japanese Economic Development Book JP 2007-01-18 (by Tetsuji Okazaki).pdf, page 210
- File:List of Source Material for the Estimation of Inventory Investment (by Hermes-IR; Hitotsubashi University Repository).pdf, page 10
- File:Overview of the companies that existed in the Higashiogu district of Arakawa, Tokyo (by Tokyo Environment Bureau).pdf, page 1
- https://blog.goo.ne.jp/19471218/e/257a5402998faf7683cc178bb010996e (archive.today)
- File:The Japan Trading Guidance Book JP 1920 (by Teikoku Tsusho Kyokwai).pdf, page 30
- File:Merchants and Manufacturers of Tokyo and Vicinity Book JP 1922 (by Tokyo Chamber of Commerce).pdf, page 52
- File:ThePerfinsBulletin US 2007-09 (by The Perfins Club).pdf, page 9
- File:History of Japanese Celluloid Industry JP Part 2.pdf, page 10
- File:OfficialGazetteofJapan JP 1949-09-24 (English Edition; Government Printing Agency).pdf, page 25
- File:OfficialGazetteofJapan JP 1949-11-25 (English Edition; Government Printing Agency).pdf, page 12
- File:Commercial Import Detentions Report 1971-1972 (United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare; Food and Drug Administration).pdf, page 379
- File:Canelon JP PrintAdvert.jpg
- File:Agriculture Environmental and Consumer Protection for Fiscal Year 1972 (United States Senate; Committee on Appropriations).pdf, page 150
- File:ConsumerNews US Volumes 1-3 (United States Office of Consumer Affairs).pdf, page 67
- File:ChemicalAbstracts US 10 (Vol. 17) 1923-05-20 (by American Chemical Society).pdf, page 153
- File:The Repatriation of Celluloid Dolls from the USA Documentary JP Promotional Poster.pdf