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Sega Model 3

From Sega Retro

Model3 fullboard.jpg
Fast facts on Sega Model 3
Manufacturer: Sega
Release Date RRP Code
Arcade
JP
1996-02 ¥?  ?
Arcade
US
1996-03 $20,000[1]  ?
Arcade
World
1996  ?



The Sega Model 3 is an arcade platform produced by Sega. It is a successor to the Sega Model 2 platform, and was released in 1996.

The Model 3 was succeeded by the Sega NAOMI in 1998, followed by the Sega Hikaru in 1999 and Sega NAOMI 2 in 2000.

Hardware

The Model 3 hardware is very different to the Sega Model 1 and Model 2 boards which preceded it. The Model 3 utilized Real3D Pro-1000 graphics processing units, designed by Real3D in partnership with Mitsubishi. The Model 3 was designed to push as many textured polygons as possible in real-time, along with the most advanced graphical techniques available at the time, such as multisample anti-aliasing, motion blur, facial animation, specular highlighting/reflection/shading, and multiple light sources.

Upon release, the Model 3 board was more powerful than any other arcade platform on the market, as well as any home console or computer at the time; it took several years for home systems to catch-up to the Model 3.

Technical specifications

Step 1.0

Technical specifications for the Sega Model 3 Step 1.0:[2]

  • Board Composition: CPU Board + VIDEO Board + ROM Board + Network/Communication Board + Security Board[3]
  • Main CPU: IBM-Motorola PowerPC 603e @ 66 MHz[4]
    • Capabilities: 64‑bit bus width, 32/64‑bit instructions/operations, 198 MIPS,[5] 132 MFLOPS, direct high-speed access to main CROM (CPU ROM) on game ROM board[6][7]
  • Network/Communication Board CPU: Motorola 68000 (16/32‑bit) @ 12 MHz (2.1 MIPS)
  • ROM Board GAL: Sega 315-5983 (GAL16V8B) @ 100 MHz[8]

Sound

Graphics

Graphical specifications of the Sega Model 3:Media:Model3 cpu1.jpg[11][12][13][14]

Memory

  • Memory: Up to 251.23 MB (144 MB main, 89.157226 MB video, 17.570312 MB sound, 512 KB other)[6]
  • RAM: 35,561 KB (34.727539 MB)
  • ROM: Up to 216.5 MB[3]
    • CROM: 136 MB (CPU ROM)
    • VROM: 64 MB (Video ROM)
    • SROM: 16.5 MB (Sound ROM)

Bandwidth

  • Memory Bandwidth: 4.9 GB/s[n 19]
    • Video memory: 3.612 GB/s[n 20]
  • RAM Bandwidth: 3.8815 GB/s
    • Main RAM: 528 MB/s[n 21]
    • VRAM: 3.212 GB/s
    • Sound RAM: 88.888889 MB/s[n 24]
    • Other RAM: 52.571429 MB/s
      • Backup NVRAM: 28.571428 MB/s[n 25]
      • Network/Communication Board: 24 MB/s[n 26]
  • ROM Bandwidth: 1.018 GB/s
    • CROM: 528 MB/s[n 27]
    • VROM: 400 MB/s[n 28]
    • SROM: 90.4 MB/s[n 29]
    • Note: High-speed access allows ROM to effectively be used as RAM, and polygon/texture data streamed directly from VROM to the GPU.[7]

Step 1.5

The Sega Model 3 Step 1.5, released in late 1996, had a higher CPU clock rate and faster 3D engine:[2]

  • Main CPU: IBM-Motorola PowerPC 603e @ 100 MHz (300 MIPS, 200 MFLOPS)
  • ROM Board GAL: Sega 315-6090A (GAL16V8B) @ 100 MHz[8]

Graphics

  • Video Board: Sega 837-12875 MODEL3 STEP 1.5
  • GPU: 2x Sega 315-5830-B (Real3D Pro‑1000) @ 66 MHz
  • GPU Geometrizers: 2x Geometry Engine ASIC (66 MHz, 2x 32‑bit floating-point units)
    • Geometry performance: 10 million lit vertices/sec[n 30]
    • Floating-point performance: 1.1 GFLOPS (690 million MAC operations/sec)[n 31]
  • GPU ALU: 4x Mitsubishi 3D‑RAM (33 MHz)
    • Performance: 528 million operations/sec, 4 million tiles/sec
  • GPU Renderers: 4x Pixel Processors (66 MHz)
  • GPU Texture Mapping Units: 4x Texture Processors (66 MHz)
  • Floating-Point Performance: 1.3 GFLOPS (790 million MAC operations/sec)[n 32]
    • Geometry performance: 11 million lit vertices/sec[n 33]
  • Rendering Fillrate:
    • Framebuffer: 528 MPixels/s (write), 2.1 GPixels/s (erase)
    • Raw polygons: 300 MPixels/s (3 million triangles/sec), 200 MPixels/s (4 million triangles/sec)
    • Textured polygons: 260 MPixels/s, with Gouraud shading, translucency, anti-aliasing, fog, lighting and Z-buffering
  • Texture Fillrate: 260 MTexels/s
  • Rendering Performance:
    • Raw polygons: 4 million triangles/sec, 7 million vectors/sec
    • Textured polygons: 2.6 million polygons/sec, with Gouraud shading, translucency, anti-aliasing, fog, lighting and Z-buffering

Bandwidth

  • Memory Bandwidth: 6.6 GB/s[n 34]
    • Video memory: 4.8 GB/s[n 35]
  • RAM Bandwidth: 5.1813 GB/s
    • Main RAM: 800 MB/s[n 36]
    • VRAM: 4.23984 GB/s
    • Sound RAM: 88.888889 MB/s
    • Other RAM: 52.571429 MB/s
  • ROM Bandwidth: 1.4184 GB/s

Step 2.0

The Sega Model 3 Step 2.0, released in 1997, was a substantial upgrade, with a higher CPU clock rate, significantly faster 3D engine (with an increased number of graphics chips), and more memory:[2]

  • CPU: IBM-Motorola PowerPC 603ev @ 166 MHz (498 MIPS,[5] 332 MFLOPS)

Graphics

  • Video Board: Sega 837-12716 MODEL3 STEP2
  • GPU: 6x Sega 315-6060 (Real3D Pro‑1000) @ 50 MHz[12][14]
    • 59 core processors: 2x Geometry Engine ASIC, 15x Mitsubishi 3D‑RAM ALU, 12x Pixel Processors,[2][15] 12x Texture Processors, 6 DMA devices, 6 tile generators, 6 Fragment Processors
    • 122 core units: 2x Geometry Engine ASIC, 90 Mitsubishi 3D‑RAM ALU units, 12x Pixel Processors, 12x Texture Processors, 2 DMA devices, 2 tile generators, 2 Fragment Processors
  • GPU Geometrizers: 6x Geometry Engine ASIC (50 MHz, 6x 32‑bit floating-point units)
    • Lighting: 12 light spots, 12 spot lights
    • Geometry performance: 24 million lit vertices/sec[n 39]
    • Floating-point performance: 2.7 GFLOPS (1.5 billion MAC operations/sec)[n 40]
  • GPU ALU: 15x Mitsubishi 3D‑RAM (33 MHz, 2-3 ALU per GPU)[21]
    • 90 core units: 60x 8‑bit ROP/blend units,[n 6] 30x 32‑bit Z‑compare units[n 6]
    • Bus width: 3840‑bit[n 41] internal, 960‑bit[n 42] external
    • Performance: 1.98 billion operations/sec, 15 million tiles/sec[25]
  • GPU Renderers: 12x Pixel Processors (50 MHz)
  • GPU Texture Mapping Units: 12x Texture Processors (50 MHz)
    • Texture RAM: 21 MB[n 43] on-board Mitsubishi CDRAM[n 6]
  • Floating-Point Performance: 3 GFLOPS (1.7 billion MAC operations/sec)[n 44]
    • Geometry performance: 25 million lit vertices/sec[n 45]
  • Rendering Fillrate:
    • Framebuffer: 1.9 GPixels/s (write), 7.9 GPixels/s (erase)
    • Raw polygons: 1.125 GPixels/s (11.25 million triangles/sec), 750 MPixels/s (15 million triangles/sec)
    • Textured polygons: 600 MPixels/s, with Gouraud shading, translucency, anti-aliasing, fog, lighting and Z-buffering
  • Texture Fillrate: 600 MTexels/s
  • Rendering Performance:
    • Raw polygons: 15 million triangles/sec, 26.25 million vectors/sec
    • Textured polygons: 6 million polygons/sec (100-pixel polygons), with Gouraud shading, translucency, anti-aliasing, fog, lighting and Z-buffering

Memory

  • Memory: Up to 317 MB (136 MB main, 146.835693 MB video, 33.695312 MB sound, 320 KB other)
  • RAM: 57,567.75 KB (56.218505 MB)
    • Main RAM: 8 MB SDRAM[39]
    • VRAM: 47,959.75 KB (46.835693 MB)
      • Framebuffer RAM: 19,203.75 KB (18.75 MB Mitsubishi 3D-RAM, 3.75 KB pixel buffer SRAM cache)[22]
      • Texture RAM: 21,588 KB (21 MB Mitsubishi CDRAM, 84 KB SRAM cache,[26] 1 MB FIFO)
      • SGRAM: 7 MB[40][32]
      • Sound RAM: 1096 KB (1 MB DRAM)
      • Other RAM: 320 KB
  • ROM: Up to 260.625 MB (128 MB CROM, 100 MB VROM,[7] 32.625 MB SROM)[41]

Bandwidth

  • Memory Bandwidth: 13.4 GB/s[n 46]
    • Video memory: 11.8 GB/s[n 47]
  • RAM Bandwidth: 11.998127 GB/s
    • Main RAM: 666.666666 MB/s[n 48]
    • VRAM: 11.19 GB/s
    • Sound RAM: 88.888889 MB/s[n 51]
    • Other RAM: 52.571429 MB/s
      • Backup NVRAM: 28.571428 MB/s[n 52]
      • Network/Communication Board: 24 MB/s[n 53]
  • ROM Bandwidth: 1.4 GB/s

Step 2.1

The Sega Model 3 Step 2.1, released in 1998, is largely identical to Step 2.0, but with the following updates:[2]

  • Video Board: Sega 837-13368 MODEL3 STEP2.1
  • ROM Board: Sega 837-13022-02
  • ROM Board GAL: Sega 315-6090B (GAL16V8B) @ 100 MHz[8]

History

The Model 3 board went through a series of delays which frustrated Sega. Following their success with the Model 2's texture-mapping chip, Real3D (a spin-off company from Lockheed Martin) were unable to finalise the specifications of the Model 3's GPU, the Real3D Pro-1000 graphics processors, until late 1995 or early 1996. By this time, Real3D had partnered with Mitsubishi, which provided the ALU and graphics memory for the Pro-1000.[13] Sega had planned to release the Model 3 board in late 1995 along with three games, one of which, Indy 500, was reportedly downgraded to Model 2 hardware thanks to the troubles.[42][43] In late 1995, Yu Suzuki promised the Model 3 would deliver "the best 3D graphics".[44] When the Model 3 specification was finalized, it used two Real3D Pro-1000 processors, including four Mitsubishi 3D-RAM ALU chips.[2] The Model 3 eventually debuted, with Virtua Fighter 3 as its first game, at the AOU Show 1996 in February 1996, and was followed by Scud Race later that year. The board was officially supported until 1999, to make room for the Sega NAOMI and its successors, the Sega Hikaru and NAOMI 2.

The Model 3 went through a number of revisions (steps) in which improvements were made the system and board architecture was changed. These "steppings" mainly increased the clock speed of the CPU and the speed of the 3D engine, as well as minor changes to the board architecture.[2] Step 1.0 and Step 1.5 released in 1996, Step 2.0 in 1997, and Step 2.1 in 1998. Though there was much talk of Model 3 games being ported to the Sega Saturn, all home ports of Model 3 games were seen on the Sega Dreamcast, including the likes of Sega Rally 2, Virtua Fighter 3tb, Virtual-On Oratorio Tangram and Virtua Striker 2.

It was the most powerful game system in its time, an order of magnitude more powerful than PC graphics cards from 1998, which were still producing Model 2 quality graphics, two years years after the Model 3's release.[45] By 2000, the Sega Model 2 & 3 had sold over 200,000 arcade systems worldwide,[46] making them some of the best-selling arcade game boards of all time. At around $15,000 each (for the Model 2, with the Model 3 costing higher), this amounts to at least over $3 billion revenue from cabinet sales, equivalent to over $4.9 billion in 2014.

From the early 1970s, arcades had been at the forefront of graphical technology in video games. The Model 3 hardware as well as competitors from this era were also leading the industry from a graphical perspective at the time, compared to PCs which were still producing Model 2 quality graphics in 1998,[45] but the gap began to slowly narrow after that, as PCs would begin to benefit from hardware accelerated graphics towards the end of the decade. Beginning with the co-development of the Sega Dreamcast console and Sega NAOMI arcade system, both released in 1998, consoles and later PCs would slowly become the basis for arcade systems, rather than the reverse as it had been up until this point. The last proprietary Sega arcade systems would be the Sega Hikaru and Sega NAOMI 2, after which PCs would overtake arcade systems as the forefront of graphical technology. Today, arcade games are built primarily around controls and the experience one gets from a game as opposed to graphical potential. Complex motion cabinets, and large, unique forms of control unsuitable for households is what drives the arcade industry in the present day.

List of games

Step 1.0

Step 1.5

Step 2.0

Step 2.1

Magazine articles

Main article: Sega Model 3/Magazine articles.

Photo gallery

Notes

  1. Over 2 million lit quads/sec (over 1 million polygons/sec per Geometrizer)[19][20]
  2. 908 MFLOPS (524 million MAC operations per second), 454 floating-point operations per lit quad: 262 MAC operations, 4 divides[18]
  3. 33 MHz, 2 ALU per GPU)[21][22]
  4. 33 MHz, 4 units per ALU
  5. 33 MHz, 2 units per ALU
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 33 MHz
  7. 7.0 7.1 16 MHz
  8. 16/33 MHz
  9. 2x 640‑bit
  10. 27 MHz
  11. 16x 32‑bit
  12. 12.0 12.1 16/24/32‑bit
  13. 4x 256‑bit
  14. 4x 32‑bit
  15. 16x 512 KB
  16. Cached DRAM, 33 MHz[26]
  17. 132 MFLOPS CPU (66 MAC operations per second),[27] 908 MFLOPS GPU (524 million MAC operations per second)
  18. PowerPC 603e: 790,419 lit vectors/sec (334 cycles per lit quad) (262 MAC operations, 4 divides) (1 cycle per MAC,[27] 18 cycles per divide)[28]
    Real3D Pro-1000: 8 million lit vertices/sec
  19. 3.8815 GB/s RAM, 1.018 GB/s ROM
  20. 3.212 GB/s VRAM, 400 MB/s VROM
  21. 64‑bit, 66 MHz[32]
  22. 1.1 GB/s per GPU,[14] 546 MB/s per 3D-RAM[25]
  23. 8x 264 MB/s[37]
  24. 2x 16‑bit, 22.222222 MHz[34]
  25. 16‑bit, 14.285714 MHz[36]
  26. 16‑bit, 12 MHz[35]
  27. 64‑bit, 66 MHz[8]
  28. 2x 32‑bit,[30] 50 MHz[38]
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 2x 16‑bit, 22.6 MHz
  30. 10.56 million lit vertices/sec
  31. 1198 MFLOPS (691 million MAC operations/sec)
  32. 200 MFLOPS CPU (100 MAC operations per second),[27] 1198 MFLOPS GPU (691 million MAC operations per second)
  33. PowerPC 603e: 1,197,604 lit vectors/sec (334 cycles per lit quad)
    Real3D Pro-1000: 10.56 million lit vertices/sec
  34. 5.1813 GB/s RAM, 1.4184 GB/s ROM
  35. 4.23984 GB/s VRAM, 528 MB/s VROM
  36. 64‑bit, 100 MHz[32]
  37. 64‑bit, 100 MHz[8]
  38. 2x 32‑bit, 66 MHz[38]
  39. Over 6 million lit quads/sec (over 1 million polygons/sec per Geometrizer)[19][20]
  40. 2724 MFLOPS (1.572 billion MAC operations/sec), 454 floating-point operations per lit quad: 262 MAC operations, 4 divides
  41. 15x 256‑bit
  42. 15x 32‑bit
  43. 42x 512 KB
  44. 332 MFLOPS CPU (166 MAC operations per second),[27] 2724 MFLOPS GPU (1.572 billion MAC operations per second)
  45. PowerPC 603e: 1,988,023 lit vectors/sec (334 cycles per lit quad)
    Real3D Pro-1000: 24 million lit vertices/sec
  46. 11.998127 GB/s RAM, 1.4 GB/s ROM
  47. 11.19 GB/s VRAM, 560 MB/s VROM
  48. 64‑bit, 83.333333 MHz[39]
  49. 546 MB/s per 3D-RAM
  50. 12x 264 MB/s[37]
  51. 2x 16‑bit, 22.222222 MHz[34]
  52. 16‑bit, 14.285714 MHz[36]
  53. 16‑bit, 12 MHz[35]
  54. 64‑bit, 100 MHz[8]
  55. 2x 32‑bit, 70 MHz[38]

References

  1. http://www.segatech.com/arcade/naomi1/index.html
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Sega Model 3 (MAME)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 https://github.com/mirror/model3emu/blob/master/Src/Model3/Model3.h
  4. http://www.segatech.com/archives/january1998.html
  5. 5.0 5.1 File:TSPC603R datasheet.pdf
  6. 6.0 6.1 https://github.com/mirror/model3emu/blob/master/Src/Model3/Model3.cpp
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Hideki Sato Sega Interview (Edge)
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 File:GAL16V8B datasheet.pdf
  9. File:ST-103-R1-040194.pdf
  10. File:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf
  11. File:Model3 cpu1.jpg
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 File:Real3DPro1000ProductDescription.pdf
  13. 13.0 13.1 Press release: 1996-08-06: Mitsubishi's Graphics Memory Products Power REAL 3D's R3D/PRO-1000 Graphics Engine
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 File:Real3D100ArchitectureOverview.pdf
  15. 15.0 15.1 File:Real3D100ArchitectureOverview.pdf, page 12
  16. https://github.com/mirror/model3emu/blob/master/Src/Model3/Real3D.cpp
  17. https://github.com/mirror/model3emu/blob/master/Src/Model3/TileGen.cpp
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 https://github.com/mamedev/mame/blob/master/src/mame/video/model3.cpp
  19. 19.0 19.1 File:Real3DPro1000ProductDescription.pdf, page 8
  20. 20.0 20.1 File:Real3DPro1000ProductDescription.pdf, page 16
  21. 21.0 21.1 File:M5M410092B datasheet.pdf
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 File:M5M410092FP datasheet.pdf
  23. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel1/4/10262/00482207.pdf
  24. 3D-RAM
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 3D-RAM (Mitsubishi)
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 File:M5M4V4169TP datasheet.pdf
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 PowerPC 603e: RISC Microprocessor User's Manual (page 35)
  28. PowerPC 603e: RISC Microprocessor User's Manual (page 252)
  29. File:Real3DPro1000ProductDescription.pdf, page 9
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 https://github.com/mirror/model3emu/blob/master/Src/Model3/Real3D.h
  31. File:GameOn US 06.pdf, page 7
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 File:KM4132G271A datasheet.pdf
  33. File:HM5241605 datasheet.pdf
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 File:HM514270 datasheet.pdf
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 File:N341256 datasheet.pdf
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 File:LH52B256 datasheet.pdf
  37. 37.0 37.1 File:DRAM Technology.pdf
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 File:MC88915 datasheet.pdf
  39. 39.0 39.1 File:TC59S1616AFT datasheet.pdf
  40. File:UPD4811650 datasheet.pdf
  41. http://mamedb.com/game/spikeofe
  42. File:NextGeneration US 11.pdf, page 16
  43. File:Edge UK 025.pdf, page 8
  44. File:SSM_UK_02.pdf, page 21
  45. 45.0 45.1 http://www.thg.ru/smoke/19991022/print.html
  46. http://web.stanford.edu/dept/HPS/TimLenoir/MilitaryEntertainmentComplex.htm
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