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Sega Model 2

From Sega Retro

Model2 cpu.jpg
Fast facts on Sega Model 2
Manufacturer: Sega
Variants: Model 2A-CRX, Model 2B-CRX, Model 2C-CRX
Add-ons: DSB1/DSB2 (Model 2C-CRX)
Release Date RRP Code
Arcade
JP
1993-08 ¥2,200,000[1]  ?
Arcade
US
1994-03 $15,000[2]  ?
Arcade
EU
1994-03 £16,000[1]  ?
Arcade
World
1994  ?



The Sega Model 2 is an arcade system board originally debuted by Sega in 1993 as a successor to the Sega Model 1 board. It is an extension of the Model 1 hardware, most notably introducing the concept of texture-mapped polygons, allowing for more realistic 3D graphics for its time. The Model 2 board was an important milestone for the arcade industry, and helped launch several key arcade franchises of the 1990s, including Daytona USA, Virtua Cop, Sega Rally Championship, Dead or Alive, Virtua Striker, Cyber Troopers Virtual-On and The House of the Dead.

The Model 2 was engineered with help from GE Aerospace (acquired by Martin Marietta in 1993, now part of Lockheed Martin), who designed the texture-mapping chip incorporated by the Model 2, which combined it with Sega's in-house polygon geometry engine.[3] The Model 2's development was led by famed Sega AM2 game designer Yu Suzuki. The arcade board debuted along with Daytona USA, a game which was finished and copyrighted in 1993, and debuted at the JAMMA arcade show in August 1993.[4]

There are four versions of the system: the original Model 2, and the Model 2A-CRX, Model 2B-CRX and Model 2C-CRX variants. Model 2 and 2A-CRX used a custom DSP with internal code for the geometrizer, while 2B-CRX and 2C-CRX used well documented DSPs and uploaded the geometrizer code at startup to the DSP. The Model 2 was succeeded in 1996 by the Sega Model 3, which in turn was succeeded by the Sega NAOMI, Sega Hikaru and Sega NAOMI 2.

History

It was a further advancement of the earlier Model 1 system. The most noticeable improvement was texture mapping, which enabled polygons to be painted with bitmap images, as opposed to the limited monotone flat shading that Model 1 supported. The Model 2 also introduced the use of texture filtering and texture anti-aliasing,[1] as well as trilinear filtering.[2] It was the most powerful game system in its time, equivalent to the power of a PC graphics card in 1998, five years after the Model 2's release.[2]

Designed by Sega AM2's Yu Suzuki, he stated that the Model 2's texture mapping chip originated "from military equipment from Lockheed Martin, which was formerly General Electric Aerial & Space's textural mapping technology. It cost $2 million dollars to use the chip. It was part of flight-simulation equipment that cost $32 million. I asked how much it would cost to buy just the chip and they came back with $2 million. And I had to take that chip and convert it for video game use, and make the technology available for the consumer at 5,000 yen ($50)" ($84 in 2014) per machine. He said "it was tough but we were able to make it for 5,000 yen. Nobody at Sega believed me when I said I wanted to purchase this technology for our games."[5] Suzuki stated that, in "the end," it "was a hit and the industry gained mass-produced texture-mapping as a result." For Virtua Fighter 2, he also utilized motion capture technology, introducing it to the game industry.[6]

There were also issues working on the new CPU,[5] the Intel i960-KB, which had just released in 1993[7]. Suzuki stated that when working "on a brand new CPU, the debugger doesn't exist yet. The latest hardware doesn't work because it's full of bugs. And even if a debugger exists, the debugger itself is full of bugs. So, I had to debug the debugger. And of course with new hardware there's no library or system, so I had to create all of that, as well. It was a brutal cycle."[5]

In a late 1998 interview, Read3D's Jon Lenyo, a former employee of GE Aerospace (later Lockheed Martin), stated that Sega's development for the Model 2 can be traced back as early as November 1990, when he and other GE Aerospace employees visited Sega and demonstrated the trilinear texture filtering and shading capabilities of their technology. As Sega was already working on the Sega Model 1 internally, they eventually incorporated GE Aerospace's technology into the Model 2.[2]

Despite its high price tag of around $15,000[2] (equivalent to $24489 in 2014), the Model 2 platform was very successful. It featured some of the highest grossing arcade games of all time: Daytona USA, Virtua Fighter 2, Cyber Troopers Virtual-On, The House of the Dead, and Dead or Alive, to name a few. Sega sold 65,000 units of the Model 2 annually,[2] and eventually sold over 130,000 units by 1996, amounting to over $1.95 billion revenue from hardware cabinet sales (130,000 units[8][9] at $15,000 each),[2][10] equivalent to over $3.18 billion in 2014, making it one of the best-selling arcade systems of all time.

According to Yu Suzuki, the Sega Model 2B-CRX arcade system board developed for Fighting Vipers "has a slightly faster processing speed" and "a higher response to displaying more polygons".[11]

Technical Specifications

Model 2 Specifications

Sound

Graphics

Graphical specifications of the Sega Model 2:[17][12][3]

Memory

  • Memory: Up to 62 MB (10,881 KB main, 35,460 KB video, 16,960 KB audio, 18 KB other)
  • System RAM: 9776 KB (9.546875 MB)[17]
  • Internal processor memory: 36.75 KB
    • CPU cache: 768 bytes[14]
    • TGP internal RAM: 36 KB (6 KB per TGP)[19]
  • Game ROM: Up to 54.25 MB

Bandwidth

  • System RAM bandwidth: 974 MB/sec
    • Main RAM bandwidth: 112 MB/sec
      • i960: 100 MB/sec (32‑bit, 25 MHz)
      • Z80: 12 MB/sec (2× 8‑bit, 8/4 MHz)
    • VRAM bandwidth: 883.34066 MB/sec[13][21]
      • TGP: 384 MB/sec (6× 32‑bit, 16 MHz)[27]
      • Video Board: 499.34066 MB/sec
        • 315‑5292 & 315‑5644: 30.769232 MB/sec (2× 16‑bit, 7.692308 MHz)[28]
        • 315‑5645: 28.571428 MB/sec (16‑bit, 14.285714 MHz)[29]
        • 315‑5646 & 315‑5647: 400 MB/sec (2× 32‑bit, 50 MHz)
        • 315‑5712: 40 MB/sec (8‑bit, 40 MHz)[30]
    • Audio RAM bandwidth: 20 MB/sec (16‑bit, 10 MHz)
  • Internal processor bandwidth: 484 MB/sec
    • CPU cache: 100 MB/sec (32‑bit, 25 MHz)
    • TGP internal RAM: 384 MB/sec (6× 32‑bit, 16 MHz)
  • Game ROM bandwidth: 933–1000 MB/sec (5× 32‑bit)[13][12]
    • EPROM: 133–200 MB/sec (32‑bit, 33–50 MHz, 20–30 ns)[31][32]
    • MROM: 800 MB/sec (4× 32‑bit, 50 MHz)

Model 2A-CRX Specifications

Model 2A-CRX, released in 1994, featured upgraded sound capabilities and increased ROM capacity:

  • Sound CPU: Motorola 68000 @ 12 MHz (16/32‑bit instructions @ 2.1 MIPS)
  • Sound chip: Yamaha SCSP
    • PCM channels: 56
    • PCM sample ROM: Up to 16 MB
    • PCM quality: 16‑bit depth, 44.1 kHz sampling rate (CD quality)
    • SCSP features: 128-step DSP, 32 PCM/FM/MIDI/LFO channels
  • Memory: Up to 142 MB (35,969 KB main, 90,244 KB video, 16,960 KB audio, 2064 KB other)
    • System RAM: 9776 KB (9.546875 MB)
      • Main RAM: 1152 KB (1.125 MB)
      • VRAM: 5984 KB (5.84375 MB)
      • Audio RAM: 576 KB
      • Other RAM: 2064 KB (2.015625 MB)
    • Internal processor memory: 36.75 KB
      • CPU cache: 768 bytes
      • TGP internal RAM: 36 KB
    • Game ROM: Up to 132.25 MB (34 MB main, 82.25 MB video,[33] 16 MB audio)

Model 2B-CRX Specifications

Model 2A-CRX, released in 1995, featured upgraded geometry engine DSP coprocessors and increased VRAM:[17]

  • GPU Geometry Engine DSP coprocessors: 2× ADSP-21062 SHARC @ 40 MHz[34]
    • Coprocessor abilities: Floating decimal point operation function, axis rotation operation function, 3D matrix operation function, SOC, ALU, T&L
    • Floating-point units: 32/40‑bit operations, 240 MFLOPS peak (120 MFLOPS each), 160 MFLOPS sustained
    • Fixed-point arithmetic: 32‑bit instructions @ 80 MIPS (40 MIPS each)
    • Data bus width: 96‑bit (48‑bit each)
    • DMA controllers: 20 DMA channels (10 channels each), 480 MB/sec transfer rate (240 MB/sec each)
  • Polygon performance:[35]
    • 800,000 polygons/sec: Lighting (200 FLOPS per polygon)
    • 600,000 polygons/sec: Lighting, textures (272 FLOPS per polygon, 266 IPS per polygon)
  • Fillrate:
    • Rendering: 120 MPixels/s (2 MPixels per frame)
    • Texturing: 120 MTexels/s
  • Memory: Up to 150.21 MB (35.125 MB main, 99,332 KB video, 16,960 KB audio, 18 KB other)
    • System RAM: 18,388 KB (17.957031 MB)[12]
      • Main RAM: 1152 KB (1.125 MB)
      • VRAM: 14,596 KB (1.5 MB framebuffer VRAM, 8228 KB coprocessor buffer SRAM/SDRAM, 4 MB texture SRAM/SDRAM, 64 KB luma, 32 KB geometry, 576 KB tiles, 64 KB colors)
      • Audio RAM: 576 KB
      • Other RAM: 2064 KB (2.015625 MB)
    • Internal processor memory: 512.75 KB
      • CPU cache: 768 bytes
      • DSP internal RAM: 512 KB SRAM (256 KB per DSP)[34]
    • Game ROM: Up to 132.25 MB (34 MB main, 82.25 MB video, 16 MB audio)

Model 2C-CRX Specifications

Model 2A-CRX, released in 1996, featured an upgraded GPU chipset and optional MPEG sound boards:

  • GPU coprocessors: 2× Fujitsu TGPx4 MB86235 @ 40 MHz[17][35]
    • Coprocessor abilities: Geometry Engine DSP, Z-sorters, clipping, hardware renderers, floating decimal point operation function, axis rotation operation function, 3D matrix operation function, ALU, DMA controllers, T&L
    • Floating-point units: 32/40‑bit operations @ 160 MFLOPS (80 MFLOPS each)
    • Fixed-point arithmetic: 32/64‑bit instructions @ 240 MIPS (120 MIPS each)
    • Bus width: 192‑bit (96‑bit each; 64‑bit SDRAM, 32‑bit SRAM)
  • Graphical features: Gouraud shading, hidden surface, Z-buffering, point sampling, bilinear filtering, trilinear filtering[36]
  • Polygon performance:[35]
    • 800,000 polygons/sec: Lighting, textures, flat shading (200 FLOPS per polygon, 266 IPS per polygon)
    • 600,000 polygons/sec: Lighting, textures, flat shading, Z-sorting (272 FLOPS per polygon)
    • 490,000 polygons/sec: Lighting, textures, Gouraud shading (326 FLOPS per polygon)
    • 366,000 polygons/sec: Lighting, textures, Gouraud shading, Z-sorting (438 FLOPS per polygon)
  • Fillrate:[35]
    • Rendering: 190 MPixels/s (95 MPixels/s per GPU)
    • Texturing: 190 MTexels/s (95 MTexels/s per GPU)
  • Optional MPEG sound board: DSB1
    • Sound CPU: Zilog Z80 (8/16‑bit instructions)
    • Sound chip: NEC µD65654GF102
  • Optional MPEG sound board: DSB2
    • Sound CPU: Motorola 68000 (16/32‑bit instructions)
    • Sound chip: NEC µD65654GF102

List of Games

Model 2

Model 2A-CRX

Model 2B-CRX

Model 2C-CRX

Other

Gallery

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 File:MeanMachinesSega22UK.pdf, page 93
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 http://www.thg.ru/smoke/19991022/print.html
  3. 3.0 3.1 File:NextGeneration US 11.pdf, page 16
  4. File:EGM US 051.pdf, page 222
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 http://web.archive.org/web/20131113174154/www.1up.com/features/disappearance-suzuki-part-1
  6. http://www.gamasutra.com/view/news/228512/Yu_Suzuki_recalls_using_military_tech_to_make_Virtua_Fighter_2.php
  7. 7.0 7.1 File:80960KB datasheet.pdf
  8. http://archive.today/XN3rz
  9. http://tinyurl.com/nyb7y3s
  10. http://www.assemblergames.com/forums/showthread.php?47028-Early-concept-of-Daytona-USA-at-Summer-CES-1993-Not-on-Model-2-but-Compu-Scene
  11. File:SSM_UK_02.pdf, page 21
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 https://github.com/mamedev/mame/blob/master/src/mame/drivers/model2.cpp
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 http://www.tvspels-nostalgi.com/pcb_sega.htm
  14. 14.0 14.1 File:I960 datasheet.pdf
  15. http://pdf.datasheetarchive.com/indexerfiles/Scans-068/DSA2IH00225160.pdf
  16. File:ST-077-R2-052594.pdf
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 https://github.com/mamedev/mame/blob/master/src/mame/video/model2.cpp
  18. Sega Model 2 ROM Dump
  19. 19.0 19.1 File:MB86232 datasheet.pdf
  20. 20.0 20.1 http://wiki.mamedev.org/index.php/TGP:Index
  21. 21.0 21.1 http://hico-srv004.pixhotel.fr/sites/default/files/gamoovernet/20110520120039-lapin252-IMG-0112.JPG
  22. Sega 16‑Bit Common Hardware, MAME
  23. File:EGM US 059.pdf, page 68
  24. File:VirtuaFighter2 Model2 Flyer.pdf, page 2
  25. http://www.gamezero.com/team-0/whats_new/past/news9504.html
  26. File:DaytonaUSA Model2 Flyer.pdf, page 2
  27. File:TC5588P datasheet.pdf
  28. File:TC518128CPL datasheet.pdf
  29. File:MB84256A datasheet.pdf
  30. http://pdf.datasheetarchive.com/datasheetsmain/Datasheets-39/DSA-764435.pdf
  31. File:AM27C1024 datasheet.pdf
  32. File:MX27C1024 datasheet.pdf
  33. http://mamedb.com/game/dynamcop
  34. 34.0 34.1 File:ADSP-2106 datasheet.pdf
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 File:3DGraphicsProcessorChipSet.pdf
  36. File:3D-CG System with Video Texturing.pdf
Sega Arcade Boards
Originating in Arcades
76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08
Blockade G80 Gigas System 18 Model 2 Hikaru Aurora
VIC Dual Zaxxon Hang-On / Space Harrier Model 1 H1 Model 3 NAOMI 2
VCO Object LaserDisc NAOMI
System 1 System 24
System 2 System 32
System 16
OutRun
X Board
Y Board
Based on Consumer Hardware
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SG-1000 System E System C Triforce Europa-R RingEdge 2
Mega-Tech System Sega Titan Video Atomiswave RingEdge
Mega Play Chihiro Nu
Lindbergh
RingWide
Hardware Series / Generations
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Electro-Mechanical systems Sega System series Sega NAOMI series
Pre-System series Sega Model series Post-NAOMI systems
Super Scaler series