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Sega Model 3

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Model3 fullboard.jpg
Fast facts on Sega Model 3
Manufacturer: Sega
Release Date RRP Code
Arcade
JP
1996-02 ¥?  ?
Arcade
US
1996-03 $20,000[1]  ?
Arcade
World
1996  ?



The Sega Model 3 is an arcade platform produced by Sega. It is a successor to the Sega Model 2 platform, and was released in 1996.

The Model 3 hardware is very different to the Sega Model 1 and Model 2 boards which preceded it. The Model 3 utilized Real3D Pro-1000 graphics processing units, designed by Real3D in partnership with Mitsubishi. The Model 3 was designed to push as many textured polygons as possible in real-time, along with the most advanced graphical techniques available at the time, such as multisample anti-aliasing, motion blur, facial animation, specular highlighting/reflection/shading, and multiple light sources. Upon release, the Model 3 board was more powerful than any other arcade platform on the market, as well as any home console or computer at the time; it took several years for home systems to catch-up to the Model 3.

The Model 3 was succeeded by the Sega NAOMI in 1998, followed by the Sega Hikaru in 1999 and Sega NAOMI 2 in 2000.

History

The Model 3 board went through a series of delays which frustrated Sega. Following their success with the Model 2's texture-mapping chip, Real3D (a spin-off company from Lockheed Martin) were unable to finalise the specifications of the Model 3's GPU, the Real3D Pro-1000 graphics processors, until late 1995 or early 1996. By this time, Real3D had partnered with Mitsubishi, which provided the ALU and graphics memory for the Pro-1000.[2] Sega had planned to release the Model 3 board in late 1995 along with three games, one of which, Indy 500, was reportedly downgraded to Model 2 hardware thanks to the troubles.[3][4] In late 1995, Yu Suzuki promised the Model 3 would deliver "the best 3D graphics".[5] When the Model 3 specification was finalized, it used two Real3D Pro-1000 processors, including four Mitsubishi 3D-RAM ALU chips.[6] The Model 3 eventually debuted, with Virtua Fighter 3 as its first game, at the AOU Show 1996 in February 1996, and was followed by Scud Race later that year. The board was officially supported until 1999, to make room for the Sega NAOMI and its successors, the Sega Hikaru and NAOMI 2.

The Model 3 went through a number of revisions (steps) in which improvements were made the system and board architecture was changed. These "steppings" mainly increased the clock speed of the CPU and the speed of the 3D engine, as well as minor changes to the board architecture.[6] Step 1.0 and Step 1.5 released in 1996, Step 2.0 in 1997, and Step 2.1 in 1998. Though there was much talk of Model 3 games being ported to the Sega Saturn, all home ports of Model 3 games were seen on the Sega Dreamcast, including the likes of Sega Rally 2, Virtua Fighter 3tb, Virtual-On Oratorio Tangram and Virtua Striker 2.

It was the most powerful game system in its time, an order of magnitude more powerful than PC graphics cards from 1998, which were still producing Model 2 quality graphics, two years years after the Model 3's release.[7] By 2000, the Sega Model 2 & 3 had sold over 200,000 arcade systems worldwide,[8] making them some of the best-selling arcade game boards of all time. At around $15,000 each (for the Model 2, with the Model 3 costing higher), this amounts to at least over $3 billion revenue from cabinet sales, equivalent to over $4.9 billion in 2014.

From the early 1970s, arcades had been at the forefront of graphical technology in video games. The Model 3 hardware as well as competitors from this era were also leading the industry from a graphical perspective at the time, compared to PCs which were still producing Model 2 quality graphics in 1998,[7] but the gap began to slowly narrow after that, as PCs would begin to benefit from hardware accelerated graphics towards the end of the decade. Beginning with the co-development of the Sega Dreamcast console and Sega NAOMI arcade system, both released in 1998, consoles and later PCs would slowly become the basis for arcade systems, rather than the reverse as it had been up until this point. The last proprietary Sega arcade systems would be the Sega Hikaru and Sega NAOMI 2, after which PCs would overtake arcade systems as the forefront of graphical technology. Today, arcade games are built primarily around controls and the experience one gets from a game as opposed to graphical potential. Complex motion cabinets, and large, unique forms of control unsuitable for households is what drives the arcade industry in the present day.

Technical Specifications

Step 1.0 Specifications

Technical specifications for the Sega Model 3 Step 1.0:[6]

  • Board Composition: CPU Board + VIDEO Board + ROM Board + Network/Communication Board + Security Board[9]
  • Main CPU: IBM-Motorola PowerPC 603e @ 66 MHz[10]
    • Capabilities: 64‑bit bus width, 32/64‑bit instructions/operations, 198 MIPS,[11] 132 MFLOPS, direct high-speed access to main CROM (CPU ROM) on game ROM board[12][13]
  • Network/Communication Board CPU: Motorola 68000 (16/32‑bit) @ 12 MHz (2.1 MIPS)
  • ROM Board GAL: Sega 315-5983 (GAL16V8B) @ 100 MHz[14]

Sound

Graphics

Graphical specifications of the Sega Model 3:Media:Model3 cpu1.jpg[17][18][2][19]

Memory

  • Memory: Up to 251.23 MB (144 MB main, 89.157226 MB video, 17.570312 MB sound, 512 KB other)[12]
  • RAM: 35,561 KB (34.727539 MB)
  • ROM: Up to 216.5 MB[9]
    • CROM: 136 MB (CPU ROM)
    • VROM: 64 MB (Video ROM)
    • SROM: 16.5 MB (Sound ROM)

Bandwidth

  • Memory Bandwidth: 4.9 GB/s (3.8815 GB/s RAM, 1.018 GB/s ROM)
    • Video memory: 3.612 GB/s (3.212 GB/s VRAM, 400 MB/s VROM)
  • RAM Bandwidth: 3.8815 GB/s
    • Main RAM: 528 MB/s (64‑bit, 66 MHz)[30]
    • VRAM: 3.212 GB/s
      • Framebuffers: 2.2 GB/s (1.1 GB/s per GPU,[19] 546 MB/s per 3D-RAM)[26]
      • Textures: 2.112 GB/s (8× 264 MB/s)[35]
    • Sound RAM: 88.888889 MB/s (2× 16‑bit, 22.222222 MHz)[32]
    • Other RAM: 52.571429 MB/s
      • Backup NVRAM: 28.571428 MB/s (16‑bit, 14.285714 MHz)[34]
      • Network/Communication Board: 24 MB/s (16‑bit, 12 MHz)[33]
  • ROM Bandwidth: 1.018 GB/s
    • CROM: 528 MB/s (64‑bit, 66 MHz)[14]
    • VROM: 400 MB/s (2× 32‑bit,[29] 50 MHz)[36]
    • SROM: 90.4 MB/s (2× 16‑bit, 22.6 MHz)
    • Note: High-speed access allows ROM to effectively be used as RAM, and polygon/texture data streamed directly from VROM to the GPU.[13]

Step 1.5 Specifications

The Sega Model 3 Step 1.5, released in late 1996, had a higher CPU clock rate and faster 3D engine:[6]

  • Main CPU: IBM-Motorola PowerPC 603e @ 100 MHz (300 MIPS, 200 MFLOPS)
  • ROM Board GAL: Sega 315-6090A (GAL16V8B) @ 100 MHz[14]

Graphics

  • Video Board: Sega 837-12875 MODEL3 STEP 1.5
  • GPU: 2× Sega 315-5830-B (Real3D Pro‑1000) @ 66 MHz
  • GPU ALU: 4× Mitsubishi 3D‑RAM (33 MHz)
    • Performance: 528 million operations/sec, 7 million vectors/sec, 4 million tiles/sec
  • GPU Geometrizers: 2× Geometry Engine ASIC (66 MHz, 2× 32‑bit floating-point units)
  • GPU Renderers: 2× Pixel Processors (66 MHz)
  • GPU Texture Mapping Units: 2× Texture Processors (66 MHz)
  • Geometric Performance:
    • Raw polygons: 4 million triangles/sec
    • Textured polygons: 2.64 million triangles/sec (1.32 million quads/sec), with Gouraud shading, translucency, anti-aliasing, fog, lighting and Z-buffering
  • Framebuffer Fillrate: 528 MPixels/s (write), 2.112 GPixels/s (erase)
  • Rendering Fillrate:
    • Raw polygons: 300 MPixels/s (3 million triangles/sec), 200 MPixels/s (4 million triangles/sec)
    • Textured polygons: 132 MPixels/s, with Gouraud shading, translucency, anti-aliasing, fog, lighting and Z-buffering
  • Texture Fillrate: 132 MTexels/s

Bandwidth

  • Memory Bandwidth: 6.6 GB/s (5.1813 GB/s RAM, 1.4184 GB/s ROM)
    • Video memory: 4.8 GB/s (4.23984 GB/s VRAM, 528 MB/s VROM)
  • RAM Bandwidth: 5.1813 GB/s
    • Main RAM: 800 MB/s (64‑bit, 100 MHz)[30]
    • VRAM: 4.23984 GB/s
    • Sound RAM: 88.888889 MB/s
    • Other RAM: 52.571429 MB/s
  • ROM Bandwidth: 1.4184 GB/s
    • CROM: 800 MB/s (64‑bit, 100 MHz)[14]
    • VROM: 528 MB/s (2× 32‑bit, 66 MHz)[36]
    • SROM: 90.4 MB/s (2× 16‑bit, 22.6 MHz)

Step 2.0 Specifications

The Sega Model 3 Step 2.0, released in 1997, was a substantial upgrade, with a higher CPU clock rate, significantly faster 3D engine (with an increased number of graphics chips), and more memory:[6]

Graphics

  • Video Board: Sega 837-12716 MODEL3 STEP2
  • GPU: 6× Sega 315-6060 (Real3D Pro‑1000) @ 50 MHz[18][19]
    • 45 core processors: 15× Mitsubishi 3D‑RAM ALU, 2× Geometry Engine ASIC, 6× Pixel Processors, 6× Texture Processors, 6 DMA devices, 6 tile generators, 6 Fragment Processors
    • 120 core units: 90 Mitsubishi 3D‑RAM ALU units, 2× Geometry Engine ASIC, 2× Texture Processors, 2 DMA devices, 2 tile generators, 2 Fragment Processors
  • GPU ALU: 15× Mitsubishi 3D‑RAM (33 MHz, 2-3 ALU per GPU)[22]
    • 90 core units: 60× 8‑bit ROP/blend units (33 MHz), 30× 32‑bit Z‑compare units (33 MHz)
    • Bus width: 3840‑bit (15× 256‑bit) internal, 960‑bit (15× 32‑bit) external
    • Performance: 1.98 billion operations/sec, 26.25 million vectors/sec, 15 million tiles/sec[26]
  • GPU Geometrizers: 6× Geometry Engine ASIC (50 MHz, 6× 32‑bit floating-point units)
    • Lighting: 12 light spots, 12 spot lights
  • GPU Renderers: 6× Pixel Processors (50 MHz)
  • GPU Texture Mapping Units: 6× Texture Processors (50 MHz)
  • Geometric Performance:
    • Raw polygons: 15 million triangles/sec
    • Textured polygons: 6 million triangles/sec (3 million quads/sec), with Gouraud shading, translucency, anti-aliasing, fog, lighting and Z-buffering
  • Framebuffer Fillrate: 1.98 GPixels/s (write), 7.92 GPixels/s (erase)
  • Rendering Fillrate:
    • Raw polygons: 1.125 GPixels/s (11.25 million triangles/sec), 750 MPixels/s (15 million triangles/sec)
    • Textured polygons: 300 MPixels/s, with Gouraud shading, translucency, anti-aliasing, fog, lighting and Z-buffering
  • Texture Fillrate: 300 MTexels/s
  • Texture RAM: 21 MB (42× 512 KB) on-board Mitsubishi CDRAM (33 MHz)

Memory

  • Memory: Up to 317 MB (136 MB main, 146.835693 MB video, 33.695312 MB sound, 320 KB other)
  • RAM: 57,567.75 KB (56.218505 MB)
    • Main RAM: 8 MB SDRAM[37]
    • VRAM: 47,959.75 KB (46.835693 MB)
      • Framebuffer RAM: 19,203.75 KB (18.75 MB Mitsubishi 3D-RAM, 3.75 KB pixel buffer SRAM cache)[23]
      • Texture RAM: 21,588 KB (21 MB Mitsubishi CDRAM, 84 KB SRAM cache,[28] 1 MB FIFO)
      • SGRAM: 7 MB[38][30]
      • Sound RAM: 1096 KB (1 MB DRAM)
      • Other RAM: 320 KB
  • ROM: Up to 260.625 MB (128 MB CROM, 100 MB VROM,[13] 32.625 MB SROM)[39]

Bandwidth

  • Memory Bandwidth: 13.4 GB/s (11.998127 GB/s RAM, 1.4 GB/s ROM)
    • Video memory: 11.8 GB/s (11.19 GB/s VRAM, 560 MB/s VROM)
  • RAM Bandwidth: 11.998127 GB/s
    • Main RAM: 666.666666 MB/s (64‑bit, 83.333333 MHz)[37]
    • VRAM: 11.19 GB/s
      • Framebuffers: 8.19 GB/s (546 MB/s per 3D-RAM)
      • Textures: 3 GB/s (12× 264 MB/s)[35]
    • Sound RAM: 88.888889 MB/s (2× 16‑bit, 22.222222 MHz)[32]
    • Other RAM: 52.571429 MB/s
      • Backup NVRAM: 28.571428 MB/s (16‑bit, 14.285714 MHz)[34]
      • Network/Communication Board: 24 MB/s (16‑bit, 12 MHz)[33]
  • ROM Bandwidth: 1.4 GB/s
    • CROM: 800 MB/s (64‑bit, 100 MHz)[14]
    • VROM: 560 MB/s (2× 32‑bit, 70 MHz)[36]
    • SROM: 90.4 MB/s (2× 16‑bit, 22.6 MHz)

Step 2.1 Specifications

The Sega Model 3 Step 2.1, released in 1998, is largely identical to Step 2.0, but with the following updates:[6]

  • Video Board: Sega 837-13368 MODEL3 STEP2.1
  • ROM Board: Sega 837-13022-02
  • ROM Board GAL: Sega 315-6090B (GAL16V8B) @ 100 MHz[14]

Hardware Images

List of Games

Step 1.0

Step 1.5

Step 2.0

Step 2.1

Emulators

MAME.(Emulation is still preliminary)

Supermodel

References

  1. http://www.segatech.com/arcade/naomi1/index.html
  2. 2.0 2.1 http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Mitsubishi's+Graphics+Memory+Products+Power+REAL+3D's+R3D%2FPRO-1000...-a018554504
  3. File:NextGeneration US 11.pdf, page 16
  4. File:Edge UK 025.pdf, page 8
  5. File:SSM_UK_02.pdf, page 21
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 https://github.com/mamedev/mame/blob/master/src/mame/drivers/model3.cpp
  7. 7.0 7.1 http://www.thg.ru/smoke/19991022/print.html
  8. http://web.stanford.edu/dept/HPS/TimLenoir/MilitaryEntertainmentComplex.htm
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 https://github.com/mirror/model3emu/blob/master/Src/Model3/Model3.h
  10. http://www.segatech.com/archives/january1998.html
  11. 11.0 11.1 File:TSPC603R datasheet.pdf
  12. 12.0 12.1 https://github.com/mirror/model3emu/blob/master/Src/Model3/Model3.cpp
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 http://farm6.staticflickr.com/5471/12172411045_18bfc5912f_c.jpg
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 File:GAL16V8B datasheet.pdf
  15. File:ST-103-R1-040194.pdf
  16. File:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf
  17. File:Model3 cpu1.jpg
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 File:Real3DPro1000ProductDescription.pdf
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 File:Real3D100ArchitectureOverview.pdf
  20. https://github.com/mirror/model3emu/blob/master/Src/Model3/Real3D.cpp
  21. https://github.com/mirror/model3emu/blob/master/Src/Model3/TileGen.cpp
  22. 22.0 22.1 File:M5M410092B datasheet.pdf
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 File:M5M410092FP datasheet.pdf
  24. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel1/4/10262/00482207.pdf
  25. https://web.archive.org/web/20140329074554/www.vgamuseum.info/index.php/glossary/Glossary-1/3/3D-RAM-20/
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.5 https://web.archive.org/web/19980122143920/www.mitsubishichips.com/products/asmemory/3dram/3dramind.htm
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 https://github.com/mamedev/mame/blob/master/src/mame/video/model3.cpp
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 File:M5M4V4169TP datasheet.pdf
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 https://github.com/mirror/model3emu/blob/master/Src/Model3/Real3D.h
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 File:KM4132G271A datasheet.pdf
  31. File:HM5241605 datasheet.pdf
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 File:HM514270 datasheet.pdf
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 File:N341256 datasheet.pdf
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 File:LH52B256 datasheet.pdf
  35. 35.0 35.1 File:DRAM Technology.pdf
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 File:MC88915 datasheet.pdf
  37. 37.0 37.1 File:TC59S1616AFT datasheet.pdf
  38. File:UPD4811650 datasheet.pdf
  39. http://mamedb.com/game/spikeofe
Sega Arcade Boards
Originating in Arcades
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VCO Object LaserDisc NAOMI
System 1 System 24
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OutRun
X Board
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