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Sega Saturn/Technical specifications

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Technical specifications for the Sega Saturn.

Processors

  • System control processor: 32‑bit fixed‑point registers/instructions, interrupt controller, DMA controller, 3 DMA channels
  • Math coprocessor: Geometry DSP @ 14.31818 MHz, 32‑bit fixed‑point instructions, 6 parallel instructions per cycle,Media:ST-TECH.pdf[17] 85.90908 MIPS (6 MIPS per MHz)
  • CD‑ROM CPU: Hitachi SH-1 32‑bit RISC processor @ 20 MHz (20 MIPS)[2] (controlling the CD‑ROM)
  • MPEG Video decoder: Sega P/N 315-5765 (Hitachi HD814101FE)
  • MPEG Audio decoder: Hitachi HD814102F

Audio

  • Bus width: 16‑bit internal, 16‑bit external

Sound

Main article: Saturn Custom Sound Processor.
  • CD‑DA: 1 streaming CD‑DA channel (16‑bit PCM, 44.1 kHz) from CD
  • Stereo audio output

Video

  • Sony CXA1645M RGB‑Composite Video Encoder[18]

Graphics

  • Graphics pipeline:
  • 3 DSP geometry processors: 2× SH-2 DSP, SCU DSP
  • 2 VDP rendering processors: VDP1 for sprites/textures/polygons, VDP2 for planes/backgrounds/textures
  • NTSC dot clock: 7.15909 MHz (lo-res),[1] 14.31818 MHz (hi-res)
  • PAL dot clock: 7.109375 MHz (lo-res), 14.21875 MHz (hi-res)
  • NTSC overscan resolution: 453×263 (lo-res),[1] 907×263 (hi-res)
  • PAL overscan resolution: 454×313 (lo-res), 908×313 (hi-res)
  • Maximum frame rate: 60 FPS (NTSC), 50 FPS (PAL)
  • DSP geometry processing: 188 MIPS (million instructions per second)[fn 4]
  • Fixed-point operations: 114 MOPS (million operations per second)[fn 5]
  • Additions: 85 million adds/sec[fn 6]
  • Multiplications: 85 million multiplies/sec[fn 7]
  • 16-bit divisions: 5 million divides/sec[fn 8]
  • Geometry calculations: 114 MOPS fixed-point calculations[fn 9]
  • Transmission bus bandwidth: 143 MB/s

SCU DSP

  • Parallel units: 32/48-bit ALU (arithmetic logic unit), 48/64‑bit Multiplier, 32-bit instruction decoder
  • Internal: 4 parallel buses, 32-bit per bus, 128-bit overall bus width, 3 buses at 14.31818 MHz, 1 bus at 28.63636 MHz
  • External: 32-bit, 28.63636 MHz
  • Fixed-point operations: 28.63636 MOPS (million operations per second), 2 MOPS/MHz (2 parallel operations/cycle)
  • Capabilities: Matrix and vector calculations, 3D point transformations, lighting calculations, fixed-point calculations,Media:ST-TECH.pdf[49] faster than SH-2,Media:ST-TECH.pdf[52] can use DMA to directly fetch and store vertex data, floating-point operations, geometry transformations, voxel rendering acceleration, fast coordinate transformations, lighting computations,[53] transparency calculations[54]
  • Notes: Can only be programmed with assembly language, more difficult to program than SH-2Media:ST-TECH.pdf[49]

VDP1

Main article: VDP1 (Saturn).
  • Colors on screen: 32,768 colors (15-bit RGB) to 1,048,576 colors (15-bit RGB, 32 transparency levels using VDP2 palette)Media:ST-TECH.pdf[57]
  • Colors per pixel: 32,768 colors (16bpp, 15-bit RGB), 256 colors (8bpp, 8-bit palette)
  • Gouraud shading: 28 MPixels/s (512×512 polygons),
    16 MPixels/s (10×10 polygons)[fn 22]
  • Shadows/Translucency: 28 MPixels/s (VDP2 palette), 5 MPixels/s (RGB)[fn 23]
  • Gouraud shading: 19 MTexels/s (504×255 textures), 9 MTexels/s (10×10 textures)[fn 25]
  • 800,000 polygons/s: Flat shading, 32-pixel polygons
  • 500,000 polygons/s: Flat shading,[82][34] 50-pixel polygons
  • 200,000 polygons/s: Gouraud shading, 32-pixel polygons[fn 27]
  • 300,000 polygons/s: 32-texel textures[fn 28]
  • 200,000 polygons/s: 70-texel textures[fn 29]
  • 140,000 polygons/s: Gouraud shading, 32-texel textures[fn 30]

VDP2

Main article: VDP2 (Saturn).
  • Bus control
  • H/V counter & timing generator
  • Scroll picture block: 8 units (Normal picture coordinate calculation, Rotation picture coordinate calculation, Pattern name control, Window control, Character control, Line picture control, VRAM control, Dot data control)
  • Video process: 7 units (Color offset & shadow, Output data control, Color computing control, Color RAM, Priority control, Color RAM control, Sprite control)
  • NBG0: 16–16,777,216 colors, tilemap (1024×1024 to 2048×2048) or bitmap (512×256 to 1024×512), column/row/line scrolling, scaling
  • NBG1: 16–32,768 colors, tilemap (1024×1024 to 2048×2048) or bitmap (512×256 to 1024×512), column/row/line scrolling, scaling
  • NBG2/NBG3: 16–256 colors, tilemap (1024×1024 to 2048×2048)
  • RBG0: 16–16,777,216 colors, tilemap (2048×2048 to 4096×4096) or bitmap (512×256 to 512×512)
  • RBG1: 16–16,777,216 colors, tilemap (2048×2048 to 4096×4096)
  • 2D scrolling planes: 26.8426–229.09088 MPixels/s
  • 16,777,216 colors on screen: 26.8426–28.63636 MPixels/s[fn 32]
  • 32,768 colors per plane: 53.6852–57.27272 MPixels/s[fn 33]
  • 256 colors per plane: 107.3704–114.54544 MPixels/s[fn 34]
  • 16 colors per plane: 214.7408–229.09088 MPixels/s[fn 35]
  • 3D rotation planes: 26.8426–28.63636 MPixels/s[fn 36]
  • 2D scrolling planes: 251.65824–503.31648 MPixels/s[fn 38]
  • Tile fillrate: 3,932,160 tiles/sec, 65,536 tiles per frame[fn 39]
  • 3D rotating playfields: 251.65824–503.31648 MPixels/s[fn 40]
  • Effective polygon fillrate: 1 million texture-mapped polygons/sec (500-texel polygons)

Resolutions

The Saturn supported the following display resolutions:Media:ST-103-R1-040194.pdf[103]

Progressive

  • 320×224 (Lo‑Res)
  • 320×240 (Lo‑Res)
  • 320×256 (Lo-Res, PAL)
  • 352×224 (Lo‑Res)
  • 352×240 (Lo‑Res)
  • 352×256 (PAL)
  • 640×224
  • 640×240
  • 640×256 (PAL)
  • 704×224
  • 704×240
  • 704×256 (PAL)

Interlaced

  • 320×448
  • 320×512 (PAL)
  • 320×480
  • 352×448
  • 320×480
  • 352×512 (PAL)
  • 640×448 (Hi‑Res)
  • 640×480 (Hi‑Res)
  • 640×512 (Hi‑Res, PAL)
  • 704×448 (Hi‑Res)
  • 704×480 (Hi‑Res)
  • 704×512 (Hi‑Res, PAL)

Memory

  • Total memory: 5–11 MB (5152 KB system, 39,408 bytes cache, 512–5120 KB cartridge, 1 MB card)
  • RAM: 4.549–10.049 MB (4640 KB system, 18,928 bytes cache, 512–5120 KB optional cartridge, 512 KB optional card)
  • ROM: 532–3092 KB (512 KB system, 20 KB cache, 2 MB optional cartridge, 512 KB optional card)
  • SH2: 8 KB cache (4 KB per SH2)
  • SH1: 4 KB cache
  • SCU DSP: 2 KB RAM cache (1 KB program, 1 KB data)
  • SMPC: 20,976 bytes (496 bytes 4‑bit RAM, 20 KB 10‑bit ROM)[19]
  • VDP2: 4 KB on‑chip color RAM
  • RAM cartridge: 512 KB to 4.5 MB
  • 4 MB Work RAM[fn 54]
  • 512 KB battery backup

Configuration

System RAM buses, all connected through the SCU:Media:ST-103-R1-040194.pdf[15]Media:13-APR-94.pdf[44]Media:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf[9]

  • SH2 (×2), SCU, SMPC <–> Work RAM,[fn 55] battery backup SRAM
  • SCU <–> VDP1, VDP2[fn 57]
  • VDP1 <–> Texture cache VRAM[fn 58]
  • VDP1 <–> Framebuffer 0 VRAM[fn 58]
  • VDP1 <–> Framebuffer 1 VRAM[fn 58]
  • VDP2 <–> Background cache VRAM[fn 59]
  • Sound sub‑system bus — SCU, 68EC000, SCSP <‑> Sound RAM[fn 60]
  • CD‑ROM sub‑system bus — SCU, SH1 <‑> CD‑ROM cache/buffer RAM[fn 60]

Bandwidth

  • System bus RAM: 114.54544 MB/s[fn 41]
  • Work RAM: 114.54544 MB/s[fn 62]
  • Battery backup SRAM: 10 MB/s[fn 63]
  • VDP1: 171.81816 MB/s[fn 65]
  • VDP2: 114.54544 MB/s[fn 66] (tiled texture compression up to 534 MB/s)[fn 67]
  • Internal processor bandwidth:
  • System ROM bandwidth: 20 MB/s[fn 76]
  • Optional cartridge RAM bandwidth: 44 MB/s[fn 77] to 50 MB/s[fn 78]

Storage

  • Storage capacity: 680 MB
  • Data transfer rate: 320 KB/s
  • Access time: Under 360 ms
  • Compatibiity: CD‑ROM, Audio CD, CD+G, CD+EG, CD Single (8cm)
  • Optional: Video CD, Photo CD, Digital Karaoke, E-book[34]

Input/Output

  • Two 16‑bit bidirectional parallel I/O ports
  • High-speed serial communications port (Both SH2 SCI channels and SCSP MIDI)
  • Cartridge connector
  • Internal expansion port for video decoder card
  • Composite video/stereo (JP Part No: HSS-0106)
  • NTSC/PAL RF (US Part No.: MK-80116, JP Part No.: HSS-0110)
  • S-Video compatible (JP Part No.: HSS-0105)
  • RGB compatible (JP Part No.: HSS-0109)
  • EDTV compatible (optional)

Power source

  • AC110 volts; 60 Hz (US)
  • AC240 volts; 50 Hz (EU)
  • AC100 volts; 60 Hz (JP)
  • AC240 volts; 60 Hz (AS)
  • AC220 volts; 60 Hz (KR)
  • 4 volt lithium battery to power non-volatile RAM and SMPC internal real-time clock
  • Power Consumption: 25 W

Dimensions

US/European model:

260 mm (10.236")
89 mm (3.504")
230 mm (9.055")


BIOS

BIOS Revisions
BIOS Version Machine Download
1.00 Sega Saturn (Japan) 1.00 (Asian Saturn) (info) (444 kB)
1.00a Sega Saturn (NA & EU) 1.00a (NA & EU Saturn) (info) (444 kB)
1.003 Sega Saturn Devkit (Japan) 1.003 (Asian Devkit) (info) (441 kB)
1.01 Sega Saturn (Japan), HiSaturn (Japan), V-Saturn (Japan) 1.01 (Asian Saturn) (info) (438 kB)
1.01 (Asian HiSaturn) (info) (438 kB)
1.01 (Asian V-Saturn) (info) (438 kB)
1.01a Sega Saturn (NA & EU) 1.01a (NA & EU Saturn) (info) (444 kB)
1.02 HiSaturn (Japan) 1.02 (JP HiSaturn) (info) (423 kB)
1.03 HiSaturn Navi (Japan) 1.03 (JP HiSaturn Navi) (info) (423 kB)

Errata

See VDP1 Errata

Footnotes

  1. MOPS (million operations per second)
  2. 1 operation per cycle[13]
  3. 39 cycles per divide[14]
  4. 74.454536 MIPS SH-2, 85.90908 MIPS SCU, 28.63636 MIPS VDP2
  5. 2x SH-2 MULT: 57.27272 MOPSMedia:SH7604 Hardware Manual.pdf[35]
    2x SH-2 DIVU: 1.468531 MOPS (39 cycles per divide)[36]
    SCU DSP: 28.63636 MOPS (add and multiply per cycle)
    VDP2: 28.63636 MOPS
  6. 2x SH-2: 57,272,720 adds/sec (1 cycle per multiply)Media:SH7604 Hardware Manual.pdf[35]
    SCU DSP: 14,318,180 multiplies/sec (1 cycle per multiply)
    VDP2: 14.31818 adds/sec
  7. 2x SH-2: 57,272,720 multiplies/sec (1 cycle per multiply)Media:SH7604 Hardware Manual.pdf[37]
    SCU DSP: 14,318,180 multiplies/sec (1 cycle per multiply)
    VDP2: 14.31818 multiplies/sec
  8. 2x CPU: 3,579,545 divides/sec (16 cycles per 16-bit divide)[14]
    2x DIVU: 1,468,531 divides/sec (39 cycles per divide)[36]
  9. 2x SH-2 MULT: 57.27272 MOPS (million operations per second)Media:SH7604 Hardware Manual.pdf[35]
    2x SH-2 DIVU: 1.468531 MOPS (39 cycles per divide)[36]
    SCU DSP: 28.63636 MOPS (add and multiply per cycle)
    VDP2: 28.63636 MOPS (only for VDP2's 3D planes)
  10. Transformation (21 adds/multiplies),Media:ST-240-A-SP1-052295.pdf[38] projection (4 adds/multiplies)[39] and perspective division (1 divide)[40] per vertex:
    • 894,886 vertices/sec: 894,886 SCU DSP transformations (14 cycles per transform,Media:ST-240-A-SP1-052295.pdf[38] 2 cycles per projection), 894,886 SH-2 DIVU divisions (1 divide per vertex)
    • 573,644 vertices/sec: 14,341,100 SH-2 MULT DSP transform/projection operations (25 cycles per vertex), 573,644 SH-2 DIVU divisions (1 divide per vertex)
    • 1,011,294 vertices/sec: 41,463,054 SH-2 transform/projection/divide cycles (41 cycles per vertex)
  11. 8 vertices per cube (6 quad polygons)Media:ST-237-R1-051795.pdf[41]
  12. 8 transformations (168 adds/multiplies), 6 surface normals (72 multiplies, 36 adds),[42] 6 light sources (72 adds/multiplies),[43] 8 projections (32 adds/multiplies) and 8 perspective divisions (24 divides)[39] per cube with 8 vertices and 6 quad polygons:
    • 52,640 cubes/sec: 52,640 SCU DSP cubes (112 transform cycles, 72 surface normal cycles, 72 light source cycles,[43] 16 projection cycles), 1,263,360 SH-2 DIVU divisions (24 divides per cube)
    • 8548 cubes/sec: 2,940,512 SH-2 MULT DSP transform/projection operations (347 cycles per cube), 205,152 SH-2 DIVU divisions (24 divides per cube)
    • 72,614 cubes/sec: 52,862,992 SH-2 transform/projection/divide cycles (728 cycles per cube)
  13. 8 transformations (168 adds/multiplies), 8 surface normals (96 multiplies, 48 adds), 8 light sources (96 adds/multiplies), 8 projections (32 adds/multiplies) and 8 perspective divisions (24 divides) per cube with 8 vertices and 6 quad polygons:
    • 44,744 cubes/sec: 44,744 SCU DSP cubes (112 transform cycles, 96 surface normal cycles, 96 light source cycles, 16 projection cycles), 1,073,856 SH-2 DIVU divisions (24 divides per cube)
    • 16,444 cubes/sec: 7,235,360 SH-2 MULT DSP transform/projection operations (440 cycles per cube), 394,675 SH-2 DIVU divisions (8 divides per cube)
    • 58,942 cubes/sec: 48,568,208 SH-2 transform/projection/divide cycles (824 cycles per cube)
  14. Multiplexed (57.27272 MB/s VDP1, 57.27272 MB/s VDP2), 16-bit per VDP, 28.63636 MHzMedia:13-APR-94.pdf[44]Media:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf[45]
  15. 8-bit, 28.63636 MHzMedia:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf[45]
  16. VDP1: 28.63636 MPixels/s (15-bit color), 35.6465 MPixels/s (8-bit color)
    VDP2: 26.8426–28.63636 MPixels/s (24-bit color), 53.6852–57.27272 MPixels/s (15-bit color), 107.3704–114.54544 MPixels/s (8-bit color), 214.7408–229.09088 MPixels/s (4-bit color)
  17. VDP1: 28.63636–35.6465 MPixels/s
    VDP2: 251.65824–534.77376 MPixels/s
  18. 57.27272 MB/s per bus
  19. 28.63636 MHz texture cache, 28.63636 MHz draw/render framebuffer, 28.63636 MHz display/erase framebufferMedia:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf[29]
  20. 1 cycle per pixelMedia:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf[27]Media:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf[75]Media:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf[28]
  21. 28.63636 MPixels/s draw, 14.418 MPixels/s erase/writeMedia:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf[76]Media:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf[77]
  22. 164,576 Gouraud-shaded 10×10 polygons/sec: 57.27272 million parallel bus cycles/sec, 248 cycles overhead per polygon (16 cycles command table fetch,Media:TUTORIAL.pdf[78] 232 cycles Gouraud shading),Media:TUTORIAL.pdf[79] 348 cycles per polygon (100 cycles drawing per 100-pixel polygon)[80]
  23. Takes six times longer when using VDP1's RGB mode.Media:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf[60] When using VDP2 palette mode, the VDP1 draws shadowed/translucent objects at full speed.
  24. Drawing process is asynchronous,Media:TUTORIAL.pdf[78] commands/textures read from texture cache and pixels/texels written to rendering framebuffer in parallel (57.27272 million parallel bus cycles/sec),Media:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf[81] 148 textured 504×255 polygons/sec (386,905 parallel cycles per polygon), 136,363 textured 10×10 polygons/sec (420 parallel cycles per polygon), 189,644 textured 8×8 polygons/sec (302 parallel cycles per polygon)Media:TUTORIAL.pdf[79]
  25. 57.27272 million parallel bus cycles/sec, 147 textured 504×255 polygons/sec (387,137 parallel cycles per polygon), 87,841 textured 10×10 polygons/sec (652 parallel cycles per polygon)Media:TUTORIAL.pdf[79][80]
  26. Flat shading: 16 cycles per polygon in 28.63636 MHz texture cache,Media:TUTORIAL.pdf[78] 1 cycle per pixel in 28.63636 MHz framebuffer
  27. 57.27272 million parallel bus cycles/sec, 248 cycles overhead per polygon (16 cycles command table fetch,Media:TUTORIAL.pdf[78] 232 cycles Gouraud shading),Media:TUTORIAL.pdf[79] 32 cycles drawing per 32-pixel polygon[80]
  28. 57.27272 million parallel bus cycles/sec, 171 parallel cycles per polygonMedia:TUTORIAL.pdf[79]
  29. 200,000 texture-mapped polygons/sec,[82][34] 57.27272 million parallel bus cycles/sec, 285 parallel cycles per polygonMedia:TUTORIAL.pdf[79]
  30. 57.27272 million parallel bus cycles/sec, 403 parallel cycles per polygonMedia:TUTORIAL.pdf[79][80]
  31. 4 system cycles per per display pixel,[1] 8 VDP2 memory cycles per lo-res display pixel, 4 VDP2 memory cycles per hi-res display pixel,Media:ST-TECH.pdf[83] VDP2 memory clock twice as high as system clock, 16-bit access per memory cycleMedia:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf[84]
  32. 2 memory cycles per pixel (8 memory cycles per 4 pixels)Media:ST-TECH.pdf[83]Media:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf[101]
  33. 1 pixel per memory cycle (4 pixels per 4 memory cycles)Media:ST-TECH.pdf[83]Media:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf[101]
  34. 2 pixels per memory cycle (4 pixels per 2 memory cycles)Media:ST-TECH.pdf[83]Media:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf[101]
  35. 4 pixels per memory cycleMedia:ST-TECH.pdf[83]Media:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf[101]
  36. 2 memory cycles per pixel (8 memory cycles per 4 pixels)Media:ST-TECH.pdf[83]Media:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf[101]
  37. 4096×4096 texel texture, 1024×1024 texel texture, 30 frames per second[102]
  38. 1024×1024 to 2048×2048 pixel tilemaps
  39. 4x 128×128 tilesMedia:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf[93]
  40. 2048×2048 to 4096×4096 texel textures
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 32‑bit, 28.63636 MHz
  42. 28.63636 MHz, 34 nsMedia:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf[104][105][106]
  43. 22.222222 MHz, 45 ns cycles, 70 ns accessMedia:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf[107][108][109]
  44. SDRAM, 80-bit
  45. 16‑bit, 28.63636 MHz, 34 nsMedia:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf[104][105][106]
  46. 32‑bit, 28.63636 MHz (2x 16-bit), 34 nsMedia:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf[110][106]
  47. 32‑bit (2x 16-bit), 57.27272 MHz, 17 ns,Media:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf[110][106] 4 system cycles per per display pixel,[1] 8 VDP2 memory cycles per lo-res display pixel, 4 VDP2 memory cycles per hi-res display pixel,Media:ST-TECH.pdf[83] VDP2 memory clock twice as high as system clock, 16-bit access per memory cycleMedia:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf[84]
  48. 17 MB textures (4096×4096 and 1024×1024 texels, 8-bit palettes) compressed in 512 KB VDP2 memory
  49. FPM DRAM, 16‑bit, 20 MHz, 50 ns cycles, 70 ns accessMedia:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf[111][112]
  50. FPM DRAM, 16‑bit, 20 MHz, 50 ns cycles, 80 ns accessMedia:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf[113][109]
  51. NVRAM, 8‑bit, 10 MHz, 100 nsMedia:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf[114][115]
  52. MROM/EPROM, 16‑bit, 10 MHz[18][116]
  53. FPM DRAM, 16-bit, 22.222222 MHz, 45 ns cycles, 70 ns access[117][118]
  54. FPM DRAM, 16-bit, 25 MHz, 40 ns cycles, 60 ns accessMedia:13-APR-94.pdf[44][119][120]
  55. 2× SDRAM, 2× FPM DRAM
  56. 80-bit
  57. 16-bit, 28.63636 MHz
  58. 58.0 58.1 58.2 SDRAM, 16-bit, 28.63636 MHz
  59. 2x SDRAM, 32-bit (2x 16-bit),Media:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf[26] 57.27272 MHz (2x 28.63636 MHz), 4 system cycles per per display pixel,[1] 8 VDP2 memory cycles per lo-res display pixel, 4 VDP2 memory cycles per hi-res display pixel,Media:ST-TECH.pdf[83] VDP2 memory clock twice as high as system clock, 16-bit access per memory cycleMedia:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf[84]
  60. 60.0 60.1 FPM DRAM, 16-bit, 28.63636 MHz
  61. 7 buses, 144-bit bus width
  62. 114.54544 MB/s SDRAM, 88.888888 MB/s FPM DRAM
  63. 8‑bit, 10 MHz
  64. SDRAM, 4 buses, 80-bit bus width, 28.63636 MHz
  65. 114.54544 MB/s framebuffers, 57.27272 MB/s texture cache, 48-bit bus width
  66. 32-bit bus width, 57.27272 MHz (2x 28.63636 MHz), 4 system cycles per per display pixel,[1] 8 VDP2 memory cycles per lo-res display pixel, 4 VDP2 memory cycles per hi-res display pixel,Media:ST-TECH.pdf[83] VDP2 memory clock twice as high as system clock, 16-bit access per memory cycleMedia:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf[84]
  67. 534.77376 megapixels/sec fillrate, 8-bit palettes
  68. 68.0 68.1 FPM DRAM, 16‑bit, 20 MHz
  69. 114.54544 MB/s per SH2
  70. 32‑bit, 20 MHz
  71. 171.81816 MB/s for 3 buses, 114.54544 MB/s for 1 bus
  72. 2 MB/s RAM, 5 MB/s ROM
  73. 16‑bit, 11.29 MHz
  74. 24‑bit, 22.58 MHz
  75. 171.81816 MB/s VDP1, 114.54544 MB/s VDP2 color RAM cache
  76. 16‑bit, 10 MHz
  77. FPM DRAM, 16-bit, 22.222222 MHz
  78. FPM DRAM, 16-bit, 25 MHz

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 Sega Saturn hardware notes (2004-04-27)
  2. 2.0 2.1 File:Hitachi SuperH Programming Manual.pdf
  3. File:SH7604 Hardware Manual.pdf
  4. File:SH-2A.pdf, page 2
  5. SH7040, SH7041, SH7042, SH7043, SH7044, SH7045, Renesas
  6. File:Hitachi SuperH Programming Manual.pdf, page 390
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 File:SH7604 Hardware Manual.pdf, page 3
  8. File:SH7604 Hardware Manual.pdf, page 219
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 File:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf
  10. 10.0 10.1 File:SH7604 Hardware Manual.pdf, page 22
  11. File:ST-103-R1-040194.pdf, page 23
  12. 12.0 12.1 File:SH7604 Hardware Manual.pdf, page 303
  13. File:Hitachi SuperH Programming Manual.pdf, page 31
  14. 14.0 14.1 File:Hitachi SuperH Programming Manual.pdf, page 155
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 File:ST-103-R1-040194.pdf
  16. 16.0 16.1 File:ST-097-R5-072694.pdf
  17. 17.0 17.1 File:ST-TECH.pdf, page 157
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 Sega Saturn (MAME)
  19. 19.0 19.1 File:HD40491 datasheet.pdf
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 File:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf, page 12
  21. 21.0 21.1 File:ST-077-R2-052594.pdf
  22. 22.0 22.1 File:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf, page 42
  23. 23.0 23.1 Sega Saturn FAQ (January 8, 2000)
  24. Obsolete Microprocessors
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 File:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.6 27.7 File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 52
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 64
  29. 29.0 29.1 File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 6
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 File:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf, page 24
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 STV VDP2 (MAME)
  32. 32.0 32.1 File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 18
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 STV VDP1 (MAME)
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.6 File:NextGeneration US 24.pdf, page 64
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 File:SH7604 Hardware Manual.pdf, page 51
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 File:Hitachi SuperH Programming Manual.pdf, page 308
  37. File:SH7604 Hardware Manual.pdf, page 36
  38. 38.0 38.1 File:ST-240-A-SP1-052295.pdf, page 8
  39. 39.0 39.1 Design of Digital Systems and Devices (page 97)
  40. 3D Polygon Rendering Pipeline (page 50)
  41. File:ST-237-R1-051795.pdf, page 51
  42. Design of Digital Systems and Devices (page 95)
  43. 43.0 43.1 Sega DTS, March 1996, DSP Demo
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 File:13-APR-94.pdf, page 8
  45. 45.0 45.1 File:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf, page 14
  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 40
  47. File:ST-103-R1-040194.pdf, page 17
  48. 48.0 48.1 File:ST-097-R5-072694.pdf, page 93
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 File:ST-TECH.pdf, page 149
  50. File:ST-TECH.pdf, page 152
  51. File:ST-103-R1-040194.pdf, page 25
  52. File:ST-TECH.pdf, page 163
  53. The State of Sega Saturn Homebrew
  54. 54.0 54.1 Pure Entertainment Interview
  55. File:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf, page 34
  56. File:TUTORIAL.pdf, page 11
  57. 57.0 57.1 57.2 File:ST-TECH.pdf, page 147
  58. File:ST-TECH.pdf, page 135
  59. File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 34
  60. 60.0 60.1 60.2 60.3 File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 110
  61. File:ST-238-R1-051795.pdf
  62. 62.0 62.1 File:ST-238-R1-051795.pdf, page 232
  63. 63.0 63.1 File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 41
  64. File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 24
  65. Sega Saturn 3D Capabilities
  66. 66.0 66.1 File:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf, page 177
  67. File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 149
  68. Sega Saturn Tech Specs
  69. Sega System 24 Hardware Notes (2013-06-16)
  70. File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 119
  71. File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 29
  72. File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 81
  73. 73.0 73.1 File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 75
  74. File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 39
  75. File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 35
  76. File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 65
  77. File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 61
  78. 78.0 78.1 78.2 78.3 File:TUTORIAL.pdf, page 15
  79. 79.0 79.1 79.2 79.3 79.4 79.5 79.6 File:TUTORIAL.pdf, page 8
  80. 80.0 80.1 80.2 80.3 80.4 Saturn VDP1 hardware notes (2003-05-17)
  81. File:ST-013-R3-061694.pdf, page 44
  82. 82.0 82.1 File:SegaVisions US 24.pdf, page 14
  83. 83.0 83.1 83.2 83.3 83.4 83.5 83.6 83.7 83.8 File:ST-TECH.pdf, page 142
  84. 84.0 84.1 84.2 84.3 File:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf, page 162
  85. 85.0 85.1 File:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf, page 38
  86. File:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf, page 163
  87. Sonic R
  88. 88.0 88.1 88.2 File:TUTORIAL.pdf, page 223
  89. 89.0 89.1 89.2 89.3 File:ST-TECH.pdf, page 165
  90. 90.0 90.1 Mass Destruction, developer note
  91. 91.0 91.1 Sega DTS, March 1996, Coefficient Table Madness Demo
  92. File:Edge UK 030.pdf, page 99
  93. 93.0 93.1 93.2 File:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf, page 132
  94. 94.0 94.1 File:13-APR-94.pdf, page 12
  95. Sega DTS, March 1996, Dual Rotating Background Demos
  96. File:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf, page 23
  97. File:13-APR-94.pdf, page 28
  98. File:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf, page 54
  99. File:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf, page 79
  100. File:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf, page 360
  101. 101.0 101.1 101.2 101.3 101.4 File:ST-058-R2-060194.pdf, page 49
  102. Sega Saturn interesting finds
  103. File:ST-103-R1-040194.pdf, page 39
  104. 104.0 104.1 File:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf, page 26
  105. 105.0 105.1 File:HM5241605 datasheet.pdf
  106. 106.0 106.1 106.2 106.3 File:UPD4504161 datasheet.pdf
  107. File:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf, page 51
  108. File:TC514260B datasheet.pdf
  109. 109.0 109.1 File:HM514260 datasheet.pdf
  110. 110.0 110.1 File:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf, page 37
  111. File:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf, page 46
  112. File:HM514270D datasheet.pdf
  113. File:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf, page 55
  114. File:Sega Service Manual - Sega Saturn (PAL) - 013-1 - June 1995.pdf, page 32
  115. File:SRM20256L datasheet.pdf
  116. File:TC574200D datasheet.pdf
  117. 「セガサターン拡張RAMカートリッジ 回路図」
  118. File:HM514260C datasheet.pdf
  119. Sega Saturn Memory Cartridge Interface
  120. File:KM48C2100A datasheet.pdf


Sega Saturn
Topics Technical Specifications (Hardware Comparison) | History (Development | Release | Decline and legacy) | List of games (A-M) | List of games (N-Z)
Hardware Sega Saturn consoles (HiSaturn, V-Saturn, etc.) | North America | Europe (West | North | South | Central and East) | Brazil | Asia | South Korea

HiSaturn Navi | SunSeibu SGX | Sega Titan Video

Add-ons Backup Memory (third-party) | Sega PriFun | Video CD Card (third-party) | Extended RAM Cartridge (third-party) | Twin Advanced ROM System
Controllers Control Pad | Control Pad (Australia) | 3D Control Pad | Arcade Racer Joystick | Infrared Control Pad | Mission Stick | Shuttle Mouse | Twin Stick | Virtua Gun | Virtua Stick | Virtua Stick Pro
Online Services/Add-ons NetLink Internet Modem (NetLink Keyboard | NetLink Keyboard Adapter | NetLink Mouse) | Saturn Modem (Floppy Drive | Keyboard)
Connector Cables 21 Pin RGB Cable | Monaural AV Cable | RF Unit | Stereo AV Cable | S-Video Cable | Taisen Cable
Development Hardware Programming Box | Sound Box | E7000 | CartDev | SNASM2 | Address Checker | PSY-Q Development System | MIRAGE Universal CD Emulator
Misc. Hardware 6 Player Adaptor‎ | SBom Multitap‎ | Action Replay | Pro Action Replay | Action Replay Plus | S-S Promoter