From Sega Retro
|Developer: Sega AM2, Scarab (programming, motion design)|
|System(s): Sega Dreamcast|
|Peripherals supported: Dreamcast Modem, Visual Memory Unit, Dreamcast VGA Box|
|Number of players: 1|
Shenmue, called Shenmue: Ichishou Yokosuka (シェンムー 一章 横須賀) in Japan (i.e. "Chapter I: Yokosuka") , is an adventure game produced and directed by Yu Suzuki and developed by Sega AM2. It was published by Sega for the Sega Dreamcast in late 1999.
Shenmue stands as one of the most significant video games ever published by Sega, at the time being the most expensive game ever produced, and having unparalleled interactivity and freedom, real-time day/night and weather systems, fully voiced non-playable characters and cutting edge graphics. Borrowing from many genres of video games, Suzuki coined a new genre name, "F.R.E.E." (Full Reactive Eyes Entertainment) to describe it.
As the Japanese name suggests, Shenmue consists of the first chapter in what is currently an unfinished story.
The fictional story of Shenmue begins on November 29, 1986, in the perspective of the protagonist Ryo Hazuki (芭月 涼 Hazuki Ryō) returning home to his family dojo to witness his father, Iwao Hazuki battling with a man named Lan Di, dressed in Chinese attire, who demands he hand over an item known as the "Dragon Mirror". Ryo intervenes in battle after his father is felled, but is injured by a blow from Lan Di. As his father refuses to reveal the location of the mirror, Lan Di lifts Ryo from the ground and threatens to kill him with a final blow, which prompts Iwao to reveal its location underneath the Cherry blossom tree.
After Lan Di's henchmen recover the mirror, he asks Iwao if he knows of a man called "Sunming Zhao" and then kills him after forcibly asking him to stand as a warrior to face his end. As Ryo lies injured on the floor of the dojo, Lan Di and his men leave the Hazuki household. After Ryo has partially recovered he feels that he must dutifully gain revenge for the murder of his father, and begins to instigate inquiries into the incident with the local people of his hometown, Sakuragaoka.
Ryo's first clue is a car that some of his neighbours saw on the day of the murder. Though his leads are few and far between, Ryo slowly makes progress in his investigation by interviewing people all over Yokosuka. Just as he is about to run out of leads, a letter from a man named Yuanda Zhu suggests that he seek the aid of a certain Master Chen, who works at the harbour. Through Chen and his son Guizhang, Ryo learns that a local wharf gang known as the Mad Angels is connected to Lan Di's crime organization, the Chiyoumen. Ryo also learns that "the mirror" stolen by Lan Di is part of a set of two mirrors. After much investigation, he locates the second mirror underneath his father's dojo. This mirror is decorated with a Phoenix.
Ryo takes a job on the waterfront in order to learn more about the Mad Angels gang, and eventually he causes them enough trouble that the gang kidnaps his friend (and principal love interest) Nozomi Harasaki. To rescue Nozomi, Ryo must first fight Guizhang, then team up with Guizhang to defeat all seventy members of the Mad Angels gang. Upon defeat, the gang's leader reveals to Ryo that Lan Di has left Japan for Hong Kong. With the aid of the Chen family as well as his family and friends, Ryo boards a boat to Hong Kong. Before the close of the first chapter (and subsequent end of the game itself), he is instructed by Master Chen to seek out the help of a master of the Chinese martial arts located in Wan Chai named Lishao Tao.
Concluding the first chapter of Shenmue, Ryo boards a boat and travels to Hong Kong in pursuit of Lan Di.
Shenmue was envisioned as the next evolution of RPGs, although its design incorporates a number of genres, attempting to simulate life in the mid-1980s while also including puzzle solving, fighting segments and even the occasional race. The game is very much story-driven, and uses very simple mechanics designed so that anyone could play (as opposed to the likes of Virtua Fighter, which Yu Suzuki claimed were too daunting for younger players).
Most of the game is spent, as Ryo, walking around Yokosuka in Japan, talking to people. It is interspersed with many "mini-games", including forklift and motorcycle races, bar fights, chases down crowded alleys, full versions of Sega arcade games Space Harrier and Hang-On, dart games and 'free fighting' sequences. The game was remarkable for its time for allowing the player to talk to every NPC they came across (who are in turn, fully voiced) and allowing Ryo to interact with hundreds of object seen in the game.
Shenmue is governed by an in-game clock and fully implements a day-to-night cycle, with certain events only occuring at certain times of day (or indeed year, in some cases). Players are not, however, restricted by the date and time - it is fully possible to spend in-game months and years in an area. How the player plays the game in this first chapter of Shenmue was originally set to influence the story in later chapters, though this feature was never fully implemented.
Weather also changes depending on the time of year, and is reportedly based on observed real-world weather patterns of the mid-to-late 1980s.
Most of the action occurs in quick-time event (QTE) sequences, in which cutscenes differ in outcome depending on your accuracy in hitting buttons in a timely fashion.
As opposed to standing still and dispensing the same lines of dialogue, as is common to most RPGs, non-playable characters in Shenmue live their lives in accordance to Japan's then-5½-day working week, leaving their houses to start work, taking lunch breaks and going home at the end of the day. The development team also made sure each NPC has its own name, age and hobbies, and characters will also react to the weather, with some taking out umbrellas when it begins to rain.
There are 168 different capsule toys in Shenmue, featuring characters and objects from Bonanza Bros., Daytona USA, Fantasy Zone, Golden Axe, Hang-On, NiGHTS into Dreams], Panzer Dragoon, Phantasy Star, Rent A Hero, Ristar, Sonic Adventure, Sonic the Fighters, Space Harrier, Virtua Fighter and Virtua Fighter Kids. Alex Kidd also makes an appearance, as does Hidekazu Yukawa, alongside a number of smaller versions of Shenmue objects.
At Game Developers Conference 2014, Yu Suzuki presented a postmortem of Shenmue, one of the single biggest project ever undertaken by Sega (or indeed any video game company), with an end budget of reportedly $70 million USD (thought to be shared between Shenmue and Shenmue II). Development began as early as 1993, when Suzuki took a trip to mainland China, learning about martial arts and scouting locations for possible game ideas.
In its earliest stages, Shenmue was known as The Old Man and The Peach Tree, a Sega Saturn game set in the city of Luoyang in 1950s China. The game was to feature a protagonist, Taro in pursuit of a mysterious figure called Master Ryu, and would play like a more traditional RPG.
As time moved on, The Old Man and The Peach Tree became a spin-off of the popular Virtua Fighter series of fighting games, now starring Akira. Now the project was being referred to as Virtua Fighter RPG (codenamed Guppy), and many of these early Virtua Fighter elements still exist in the final game, both in the fighting mechanics, and lead characters, Ryo still loosely resembling Akira and Lan Di possibly resembling Lau. The game was set to be a 45-hour adventure at this point spanning 11 chapters.
Nearing two years of development, Virtua Fighter RPG shed its Virtua Fighter aesthetics in favour of an original cast of characters (although the idea was partially revisited in 2004's Virtua Quest). A significant amount of footage has emerged from the period which followed - Shenmue, much as we know it today, running on the Sega Saturn, in what is widely considered to be one of greatest technical showpieces on the system. Yu Suzuki has claimed that working on the Saturn was a very difficult task, but he was proud of what his team had achieved on the 32-bit system.
Inevitably due to the Saturn's struggle in Western markets, the still untitled Shenmue was brought to the Sega Dreamcast (then under its codename "Katana" - Katana-branded cigarettes are available throughout the game as a reference to this period). In the early days, the Katana specs had not been finalised, forcing Suzuki's team to make educated guesses as to how the game would perform. It was later retitled Project Berkley, and featured on a special preview disc distributed with the 1998 Dreamcast release of Virtua Fighter 3tb in Japan (although aside from broad concepts and glimpses of artwork, the disc explains very little).
Shenmue (under its final name) was shown to the world for the first time on December 20th, 1998 at the National Convention Hall in Yokohama. At this point in development, most of the game was said to take place in China and feature four "main" characters. As a nod to this Chinese focus, a "hugely popular Chinese pop star" took to the stage to sing the game's theme song.
Yokosuka was set to appear in this earlier version of Shenmue, but only briefly, in a period set 30 years before the main events of the game (which would have meant the mid-1950s). However, only Chinese footage was shown during this period - nothing from the Yokosuka section would be seen until mid-1999.
Shenmue was an ambitious game and remains to this day one of the most costly video game projects ever conceived. When the project was first made public, it was said to involve three chapters, which ballooned into a 16-chapter epic to be shipped as one game in early 1999. No firm release date was given, however, and the deadline was missed - the first of several. The new release date was pencilled in as August.
Towards the back-end of March 1999, at Tokyo Game Show '99 Spring, Yu Suzuki announced that the full Shenmue package had been delayed. Instead, the game would be split into two for Japanese audiences, however by the time of the planned US launch in 2000, the two halves would be combined into a single package.
August 5th, 1999 became the new release date for the first part of Shenmue, with part two arriving "just before Christmas". Part one was then delayed again until October, with part two set to arrive a couple of months later. A decision was made to release a "demo" version of the game, What's Shenmue in August in its place, to help promote the game ahead of the full release.
The 16 chapters of Shenmue were at this point set to be spread across three games, however no details were released about part three. It was suggested that the explanation of the term "Shenmue" would be revealed in the third part, however.
As the year drew on, Sega announced another delay, and that the first part of Shenmue, set in mainland China would launch in Japan in April 2000. The second part in Yokosuka would follow some time later, with potentially more sequels to come. It was at some point in 1999 that the Yokosuka section was expanded significantly, eventually becoming the subject of the first game.
There were still plans to release the game in the West in the Winter of 2000, but it was widely assumed to be subtitled. Delays for the European version were attributed to the many lanugages the subtitles would need translating into.
In a rare move for the industry, part one of Shenmue had its release date brought forward to the 29th of December, its sequel being pushed back further to an undisclosed date, leading to stocks in Sega rising by 5%. This time the game launched in Japan as expected, though the combined version once planned for the US and Europe would now be split as well.
At some point the number of overall chapters was reduced from 16 to only 7. Part one would contain the first chapter, part two would contain 2, 3, 4 and 5 and part three (presumably) 6 and 7. Such was the state of development that chapter 2 would later be relegated to a comic book, while the contents of chapters 6 and 7 were never publicly discussed.
Shenmue, in its raw form at one point covered 50-60 CD-ROMs, forcing the team to focus on ways to compress data. One space saving measure employed was to recycle animations for multiple characters, including at one point, to animals, leading to bipedal cats and men "strutting like Marilyn Monroe".
Shenmue employed various techniques that up until this point had only been seen in movie production. Every character, no matter how minor, was given a voice (both in Japanese and later English), and the game was given a cinematic musical score performed by an ochestra headed by Takenobu Mitsuyoshi.
Originally, the main characters were sketched out and handed to AM2's 3D modellers, however the result was unsatisfactory, leading to Yu Suzuki and the team into creating full-size heads of the characters out of clay to assist the artists.
Extensive research into the time period was conducted by the team. Weather patterns of the mid-1980s were modelled for the sake of realism.
The Japanese release features licensed drinks from the Coca-Cola company. These were replaced in Western versions with non-branded versions, as Sega had only obtained the rights to these products in Japan.
Western localisation was handled by IMagic. One of the major stumbling blocks was Yu Suzuki's insistence that all the English dubbing occurred in Japan, despite the abundance of more naturally fitting actors in the US. A lack of English voice actors in Japan led to voice actors making the journey from the US specifically for the game, including Corey Marshall (Ryo) who had never visited Japan before. Marshall also practised martial arts, and was hired due to a policy of hiring voice actors who would be similar to their in-game counterparts (despite the actors never being seen in-game).
Despite Marshall fulfilling Suzuki's list of requirements, his voice was adjusted digitally for the final game to make Ryo sound younger.
Other localisations include the main atagonist, Souryuu, being renamed Lan Di for the Western versions.
Shenmue saw wide critical acclaim after release due to the many revolutionary features it brought to the world of video games. However, despite the praise, Shenmue struggled to sell. Some critics believed the game was far too slow and self indulgent. Though easy to sell to Japanese audiences, Western consumers found the game's themes unappealing.
The game sold at a massive loss, and it is predicted that every Dreamcast owner would have needed to buy the game twice in order for it to turn a profit. Initial plans were to create a trilogy of Shenmue games, and although Shenmue II saw a release (with a much smaller budget), Shenmue III has been in development hell for nearly a decade. In June 2015, a Kickstarter campaign for Shenmue III was announced by Yu Suzuki at Sony's 2015 E3 press conference. It was successfully funded and the game is currently scheduled for release on August 27, 2019.
Shenmue includes both Japanese and English speech/subtitles in the West. However in Japan, only Japanese was an option. For unknown reasons Sega would later release U.S. Shenmue in Japan - exactly the same game but with the English dub.
1.2 million copies of the game were sold worldwide.
On August 21st, 2018, a remastered version of Shenmue (bundled with Shenmue II) was released for Windows, PlayStation 4, and Xbox One.
While considered a market failure, Shenmue has developed a cult following and remains one of the highest rated Dreamcast games ever made. Many of its ideas regarding an open, freely explorable world have been revisited in the Yakuza series of games, starting with the original PlayStation 2 Yakuza in 2005.
- Producer/Director/Game Story: Yu Suzuki
- Screenplay: Masahiro Yoshimoto
- Game Director: Keiji Okayasu
- Scenario Director: Takao Yotsuji
- Planning Director: Eigo Kasahara
- Program Director: Keiji Okayasu
- Design Director: Masanori Ohe
- Sound Director: Takenobu Mitsuyoshi
- Motion Capture Unit Director: Hiroaki Jinno
- Voice Recording Director: Susumu Tashiro
- Promotion Director: Shigeru Ueda
- Production Manager: Hiroshi Aso
- Sound Production Manager: Tatsutoshi Narita
- Scenario Supervisor: Yu Yamamoto
- Game Adviser: Hiroaki Takeuchi
- Battle System Supervisor: Takayuki Haneda
- Interior Coordinator: Manabu Takimoto
- Location Manager & Adviser: Kazunari Uchida
- Action Item Supervisor: Kunio Sasayama
- Hakkyuku Ken Motions Supervisor: Master Gorenshi
- Director: Takao Yotsuji
- Main Scenario: Masahiro Yoshimoto
- Free Scenario Plotters: Katsuo Naruse, Junichi Yagi, Tow Ubukata, Akira Okeya
- Free Scenario Management: Junichi Yoshida, Yoshijiroh Muramatsu, Kouichi Mizuide, Atsushi Komine
- Free Scenario Writers: Makoto Goya, Masatoshi Kurakata, Yasushi Ohtake, Kiyono Yoshioka, Yasuo Yamabe, Kiyomi Mizushima, Hideyo Ikeda
- Free Scenario Checkers: Katsuyuki Sugano, Yoshiaki Wakino
- Free Scenario Character Data Management: Takeshi Kagawa, Shigeyoshi Kumagai
- Chief Scenario Flow Editor: Tsuyoshi Murakami
- Scenario Flow Editors: Masanobu Fukazawa, Kenji Takei, Daisuke Tazaki, Tsutomu Uchiyama, Takahiro Iwami, Fumito Suzuki
- Main Script Writers: Takumi Hagiwara, Masayuki Hiramatu
- Script Writers: Eiichirou Tano, Yuuki Tone, Ryo Ono, Tatsuya Ohmachi, Koichiro Kurosawa, Kazuaki Ichinohe, Kouki Anbo, Masayoshi Takatori, Kenji Ishikawa
- Main Dialogue Editors: Toshirou Sasaki, Masayuki Ishikawa
- Dialogue Editors: Izumi Saito, Yasuyo Kudo, Yasushi Funakoshi, Kaori Uegaki, Miyuki Yamaguchi, Masaru Oowada
- Director: Eigo Kasahara
- Chief System Planner: Hideo Choumabayashi
- System Planners: Akihito Ohta, Hideaki Takuno, Ken Odanaga
- Chief Event Planner & Manager: Misako Hamada
- Event Planners: Yoshihiro Okabayashi, Takeshi Gotou, Shin Ishikawa, Akitaka Ito, Isao Murayama, Masayuki Kinoshita, Yousuke Komada, Shirou Jibiki, Shinsaku Tanaka, Hiroaki Suzuki, Toshihiko Gondo
- Battle System Supervisor: Takayuki Haneda
- Battle System Planners: Kouji Kudou, Hiroshi Ando, Toshiaki Motozawa
- Periodical Motion Data Supervisor: Makoto Osaki
- Periodical Motion Data Management: Dai Mizuguchi, Tomotaka Shirono
- Periodical Motion Data Production: Atsushi Ogata, Yoh Nakano, Tomoya Kouda, Tomoyuki Hirabayashi, Kentaro Arakawa, Yohsuke Kawano, Hitoshi Kagawa
- Chief Map & Property Layout Planner: Kataru Uchimura
- Map & Property Layout Planners: Koumei Akazawa, Chie Ishigaki
- Map & Property Layout Properties Planner: Kouichi Konita
- Chief Motion Camera Director: Katsunori Yamaji
- Motion Camera Directors: Kazuhiro Fushimi, Tomokuni Nishimine, Masataka Saito
- Assistant AVID Editors: Naonori Watanabe, Akihito Kadota
- Chief Game Coordinator: Shinichi Yoshino
- Assistant Game Coordinator: Shigeki Terajima
- Minutes: Kunio Sasayama, Mikio Mineyoshi, Yoshiyuki Akune
- Planning Section Assistants: Takashi Hirai, Takayuki Kanno, Kenichi Oguchi, Kazuaki Kunii
- Director: Keiji Okayasu
- Main System Programmers: Takeshi Hirai, Shigenobu Iga
- Assistant Main System Programmers: Makoto Wada, Kazunori Masuda, Sumito Aso
- System Programmers: Nobuyuki Sugano, Takayuki Iida, Masashi Hayashida, Hajime Ikebe, Satoru Sugisaki, Toshihiko Gouya, Hirohisa Kitamura, Satoshi Inoue, Takeshi Ubukata, Takashi Suwa, Satoru Takeshima, Toshiyuki Kita, Takao Yajima, Shoji Mimura, Yoshio Kakei, Tomonori Nagatani, Muneyuki Hirose, Toshio Arai, Yoshinori Koiwa, Shingo Tsuda, Takayui Maehara, Hiroomi Hatano, Mayumi Ito
- Main Event System Programmers: Yuzo Iwai, Kouji Hanaoka, Takeshi Hisajima, Takeshi Machida
- Event System Programmers: Matsuhide Mizoguchi, Masakazu Nishii, Takatoshi Tatsumi, Hideaki Miyagushi, Shinichi Kawamoto, Toshiya Satoh, Kaichi Oda, Hidetomo Hara, Masahiro Ito, Tomohiro Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki Kurooka, Hiroto Matsuura, Katsuhiro Sanjyo, Takashi Yamaguchi, Yoshikazu Nagasawa, Hirohiko Yoneda, Kennosuke Koga, Masanori Nakamura, Shin Kuroiwa, Shingo Miyawaki, Tetsuya Takenaka, Yasushi Ebizuka, Muneyuki Hattori, Noritsugu Nitta, Shinichirou Mukaigashira, Masatoshi Hashimoto
- Chief 3D Library & Effect Programmer: Takeyuki Ogura
- 3D Library & Effect Programmers: Keiichi Yamamoto, Junichi Komori, Takehiro Shimizu, Hiroyuki Fukuchi, Kenji Ootomo
- Chief View Mode Programmer: Manabu Matsumoto
- View Mode Programmers: Yoichi Ugajin, Nobuyuki Hakiri, Ryo Ikawa, Yoshinari Yamada, Arata Hanashima
- Chief Battle System Programmer: Hiroaki Shoji
- Battle System Programmers: Norihiro Sekine, Kenji Kawabata, Yasutaka Igarashi
- Data Management: Daisuke Hirai, Katsuyuki Sato, Yoshito Kyoso, Yusuke Matsuyama, Tooru Katou, Junichi Sakurai, Seikou Hokama
- Software Section Assistant: Naoko Kikuchi
- Director: Masanori Ohe
- 2D Graphics Design Supervisor & 2D Graphics Character Designer: Kenji Miyawaki
- 2D Graphics Assistant Character Designer: Masaya Saida
- 2D Graphics Designers: Hiroshi Kandou, Erika Aihara
- Main 3D Character Designers: Tetsunari Iwasaki, Hideki Kawabata
- 3D Character Designers: Takashi Doi, Takeshi Itou, Nobuyuki Suzuki, Chisa Yamada, Yumiko Sonoyama, Kumiko Tamaki, Hiroki Koike, Mio Saitou, Takashi Yamaguchi, Chizuka Tamehira, Eiko Takahashi, Atsushi Miyazono, Yumiko Dobashi, Ringo Manabe, Kentaro Nishimura, Keita Yoshino, Daisuke Saito
- Main 3D Back Ground Designers: Takehiko Mikami, Nobuyuki Matsuda, Takumi Matsui
- Assistant Main 3D Back Ground Designers: Masato Nishimura, Hiroshi Sengoku, Masahiko Yagi, Yasushi Kameda, Hiromitsu Sasaki
- 3D Back Ground Designers: Shinya Inoue, Mitsugu Tsuchida, Nobuaki Mitake, Hiroshi Yamada, Takehiro Izumo, Shigeo Kusaba, Hiroyasu Tamura, Teruya Suzuki, Mami Abe, Makoto Onuma, Rie Wada, Yoshinari Ito, Tatsuya Wakabayashi, Haruhiko Miwa, Chigusa Hosoda, Akiko Saitou, Tsukasa Shiroma, Ayako Kujirai, Takashi Saito, Masaaki Hirano, Tadatoshi Hara, Hiroki Hamashima, So Nakamura
- Main Motion Designers: Takeo Iwata, Hiroshi Yamaguchi
- Motion Designers: Mieko Ajima, Masaya Kusunose, Kiyoshi Ishimaru, Yoshiyuki Tanaka, Takahito Minei, Toshiaki Yamada, Naoki Ito, Shigemi Ohmori, Hideaki Fukai, Fumiyo Tanaka, Yasuhiro Sumimoto, Kousuke Wakamatsu, Daisuke Tachibana, Masatoshi Murakami, Taro Takemoto, Mari Watanabe, Koichi Okada, Satoko Sato
- Chief Battle Motion Designer: Hiroshi Kawasaki
- Battle Motion Designers: Yasuyuki Fujii, Takehisa Yoshimura, Kenji Asari
- Motion Camera & Animations Supervisor: Hideyuki Ohi
- Motion Camera & Animations Coordinators: Hiroshi Noguchi, Katsuo Saitoh
- Motion Camera & Animations Designers: Kazuyoshi Asami, Shungo Seki, Hiroya Eguchi, Yuichi Uchida, Makiko Ishikawa, Takeya Sekiguchi, Koji Tsuchida
- Design Section Assistants: Tomotaka Shiroichi, Tohru Murayama, Nozomi Watanabe
- Director: Hiroaki Jinno
- Action Director: Sho Tagaya
- Assistant Directors: Kazuhiro Tsuboy, Rei Kato, Genichirou Suzuki, Hitoshi Tawada, Chidori Hirano, Takuya Tsukamoto, Lumi Umehara, Yufu Shiomi, Kunihiko Matsunaga
- Research and Development: Hans Van Veenendaal
- System Operator & Manager: Yaekko Okadaya
- Unit Assistants: Akihiko Nagao, Tomoko Morikawa, Takeyuki Izumi, Satoru Yanagai
- Hiroaki Jinno's Secretary: Tomoko Ieiri
- Casting Directors: Kenichi Kuramochi, Toshie Tabata
- Cast: Hiroshi Fujioka (Iwao Hazuki), Masaya Matsukaze (Ryo Hazuki), Haduki Ishigaki (Shenhua Rei)
- Motion Actors & Actresses: Seiji Matano, Yoshie Yamamoto, Shinmei Tsuji, Jinta Tsuboi, Ei Kawakami, Indy Takahashi, Aya Kosaka, Taiki Itou, Nobuyuki Hikichi, Yuuki Fujikura, Miduki Tsuruoka, Kensaku Maeda, Takafumi Ohwa, Yuki Shiina, Junji Oshima, Tetsuhiro Ikeda, Yuki Imahira, Yousuke Sakaki, Mayumi Sato, Takeshi Takimoto, Takakazu Tsukamoto, Chiyo Tsukamoto, Takashige Tsuda, Ryouhei Nakamura, Takashi Hashimoto, Tomonari Mizuno, Yubie Mitsuse, Wataru Murakami, Yumiko Watanabe
- Stunt Actors: Yuuichi Aida, Masanori Tomita, Hiromi Shinjyo, Kazuyuki Nakamoto, Hiromi Shinjyo, Kazuyuki Nakamoto, Kouji Hatta, Ryosuke Shiba
- Hakkyoku Ken Actor: Tetsuya Hattori
- Director: Takenobu Mitsuyoshi
- Assistant Director: Yasuhiro Takagi
- Music Composers: Takenobu Mitsuyoshi, Yuzo Koshiro, Ryuji Iuchi, Takeshi Yanagawa, Satoshi Miyashita, Osamu Murata
- BGM Conversion Supervisor: Taro Hara
- BGM Conversion: Hiroyuki Hamada, Hideaki Miyamoto, Ryuji Iuchi
- Erhu Performed By: Jia Peng-Fang, Yuiran Oyama, Zhang Yong
- Sound Effects Supervisor: Seiichi Hamada
- Sound Effects Editors: Shizuo Kurahashi, Yasushi Matsuki, Shinji Otsuka, Masataka Nitta
- Orchestra Arranged By: Hayato Matsuo, Toshiyuki Watanabe
- Orchestra Album Production: Hiroki Horio, Hideyuki Fujii
- Conducted By: Hiroshi Kumagai
- Music Performed By: Kanagawa Philharmony Orchestra
- Clipper Tool Supervisor: Takashi Nozawa
- Clipper Tool Programmer: Masao Oshimi
- Sound Production Manager: Tatsutoshi Narita
- Performed By: Ioli
- Written By: Yumi Asada
- Composed By: Ryuji Iuchi
- Orchestra Arranged By: Hayato Matsuo
- Performed By: Yumiko Yamamoto
- Written By: Yumi Asada
- Composed By: Ryuji Iuchi
- Arranged By: Nobuhiko Kashihara
- Directed By: Kaori Takai
- Executive Producer: Junji Fujita
- Manager: Tatsutoshi Narita
- Chief Voice Recording Editor: Osamu Murata
- Voice Editors: Akihiko Onda, Ryohei Kohno, Megumi Takano
- Voice Recording Executive Producer: Shuichi Kakesu
- Voice Recording Producer: Koji Kobayashi
- Voice Recording Director: Hirotaka Tashiro
- Voice Recording Project Manager: Sohtarou Maeda
- Voice Recording Scripter: Shieko Tanakadatu
- Voice Recording Production Coordination: Kei Kimura, Megumi Igei, Kei Miura
- Voice Recording Assistant Manager: Emi Wakamatsu
- Voice Recording Production Account: Yuriko Mameshiro
- Translation Coordinator: Mayumi Sakazaki
- Translation Project Manager: Pako Hanaoka
- Translation Localize Engineer: Akiho Tazukuri
- Translation Chief Editor: Sid Lloyd
- Cast: Corey Marshall, Debora Rabbai, Ruth Hollyman, Paul Lucas, Robert Jefferson, Terry Osada, Eric Kelso, Dennis Falt, Ryan Drees, Jerry Ledbetter, Alex Hayns, Rob Croker, Eric Jacobson, Gregg Ladd, Anne Slater, Terry Osada, Guy Perryman, Lenne Hardt, Brian Matt-Uhl, Claire O'Connor, Cara Jones, William M. Sullivan, Lynn M. Harris, Dario Toda, Patrick De Volpi, Julia Yermakov, Jeff Manning, Jerri Sorels, Chris Wells, Colleen Lanki, Mireille Watanabe, Jeff Gedert, Kurt Common, Patrick Harlan, Robert Belgrade, Amanda Satchell
- Other Cast: Tom Clark, John Ogelvee, Bianca Allen, Walter Roberts, Brit Ofstedal, Carlos Teuscher, Mark Hagan, Kezia Tobin, Mike Thro, Kimberly Forsythe, Michael Naishtut, Clark Bowdoin, Miki Sato, Greg Irwin, Mona Alawdeen, Jun Shimoda, Monica Taylor Horgan, Scott McCulloch, Monika Hudgins, Douglas J. Kirl, Yuho Yamaguchi, Takashi Yamaguchi, Rumiko Varnes, David Chester, Ross Mihara, David Schaufele, Lonnie Hirsch, Dennis Gunn, Donna Burke
- Voice Talent Coordination: Voice Talent Coordination, New York Imagic Inc.
- R&D Dept. #4 Supervisors: Toshihiro Nagoshi, Tetsuya Kaku
- R&D Dept. #4 Designers: Kazuhiro Izaki, Junichi Yamada
- R&D Dept. #4 Programmer: Hisashi Endo
- R&D Dept. #2 Supervisors: Makoto Osaki, Hiroshi Kataoka
- R&D Dept. #2 Programmers: Takashi Fujimura, Masayuki Sumi, Hideki Tanaka, Tetsuya Sugimoto, Takeshi Iwasaki, Hiroshi Masui, Masaki Katoh, Dai Matsuzaki, Masaru Moriguchi, Junnichiro Matsuura, Takayuki Muramatsu, Takuji Masuda, Shigeru Yoshida
- R&D Dept. #2 Designers: Naotake Nishimura, Makio Kida, Yoshiyuki Iwai, Yukitoshi Katsuyama, Takashi Matsuda, Tomoaki Inoue, Makoto Ando, Masakazu Takizawa, Munekazu Makino, Shinichiro Shimano, Toshiya Inoue
- R&D Dept. #2 Technical Research System Library Unit: Masafumi Fujita, Takayuki Ohta, Mamoru Tashiro, Katsuyuki Matsubara, Kazuya Fujishima, Yohsuke Takeda, Norimasa Yoshizawa
- R&D Dept. #2 Technical Research System Tools Unit: Kanji Omatsu, Shigenobu Nakamura, Takeharu Tanimura, Toshinobu Sakurai, Akira Kudo, Daigo Iwatani, Kazuo Ishii, Toshihiro Hatanaka
- R&D Dept. #2 Technical Research Motion Capture System: Hans Van Veenendaal
- R&D Dept. #2 Technical Research Network Unit: Tohru Kobayashi, Keishi Suzuki, Yoshitaka Higashiyama, Yasuyuki Komiya, Tetsuo Takahashi, Haruki Kubota, Yuji Miyata, Atsutoshi Igarashi, Sayaka Watanabe, Ryousuke Ishihara
- Director: Eigo Kasahara
- Chief Scenario Writer: Takao Yotsuji
- Chief Programmer: Masayuki Sumi
- Chief 2D Graphics Designer: Kenji Miyawaki
- Supervisor: Tadahiro Kawamura
- Writers: Junichi Yoshida, Yoshijiroh Muramatsu, Yasushi Ohtake, Makoto Goya, Kiyono Yoshioka, Kiyomi Mizushima, Hideyo Ikeda, Tetsuya Hattori
- Planners: Shigeki Terajima, Yasumichi Takase, Akihito Ohta, Mitsuaki Suzuki, Hideo Choumabayashi, Takashi Hirai, Kenichi Oguchi
- Programmers: Takayuki Ohta, Takeshi Ogawa, Hiroyuki Tsuzuki, Kazuo Ishii, Tomohiro Tsuchiya, Mamoru Tashiro, Katsuyuki Matsubara, Norimasa Yoshizawa
- 2D Graphics Designers: Hiroshi Kandou, Masaya Saida, Erika Aihara, Manabu Sato, Taku Kihara
- 3D Graphics Designers: Takehiko Mikami, Yumiko Sonoyama, Takumi Matsui, Takashi Ito, Masahiko Yagi, Hiroshi Sengoku, Yoshinari Ito, Haruhiko Miwa, Makoto Onuma, Chigusa Hosoda, Hiroyasu Tamura, Nobuaki Mitake
- Motion Designers: Takeo Iwata, Mieko Ajima, Hiroshi Kawasaki, Yasuyuki Fujii, Takehisa Yoshimura, Kenji Asari
- Sound & Music: Takenobu Mitsuyoshi, Hideaki Miyamoto
- Server Management: Tohru Kobayashi, Tetsuo Takahashi, Yasuyuki Komiya, Masaya Takeshige
- Special Thanks: Makoto Wada, Hideyuki Ohi, Katsuo Saitoh, Kataru Uchimura, Chie Ishigaki, Koumei Akazawa, Keita Yoshino, Chisa Yamada, Katsunori Yamaji, Takeshi Gotou, Masataka Saito, Hideki Kawabata, Masaya Kusunose, Daisuke Tachibana, Mami Abe, Tatsuya Wakabayashi, Tohru Murayama, Nozomi Watanabe
- Director of Overseas Version: Eigo Kasahara
- Chief Localization: Isao Murayama
- Localization Staff: Junichi Kobayashi, Shu Hiratou
- Main Programmer: Makoto Wada
- Translation Supervisor: Monika Hudgins
- Overseas Coordinator: Shinobu Shindo
- Chinese Advisor: Qi Ning
- Chief Shenmue Passport Localization: Shigeki Terajima
- Main Shenmue Passport Programmer: Takayuki Ohta
- Shenmue Passport Programmer: Noriaki Yoshizawa
- U.S. Executive in Charge: Shinobu Toyoda
- Localization Coordination: Jin Shimazaki, Osamu Shibamiya
- Producer: Jason Kuo
- Dialogue Editors: Jason Kuo, Christopher Lucich
- Director Promotions: Heather Kashner
- Product Manager: Robert Alvarez
- Product Marketing Specialist: Dennis Lee
- Director Product Marketing: John Golden
- Public Relations: Heather Hawkins
- Director Event Planning: Kathleen Joyce
- Creative Services: Angela Santos
- Lead Tester: Michael Rhinehart
- Product Director: Naohiko Hoshino
- Executive Localization Producer: Kats Sato
- Localization Producer: David Nulty
- Assistant Localization Producer: Kuniyo Matsumoto
- Product Marketing Manager: Jim Pride, Mathew Quaeck
- Public Relations for UK: Stuart Turner
- Public Relations for France: Anne Roppe
- Public Relations for Germany: Tina Sakowsky
- Public Relations for Spain: Esther Barral
- Text Translator (France): Dave Thompson
- Text Translator (Germany): Angelika Michitsch
- Text Translator (Spain): Roberto Parraga
- Testing Manager: Jason Cumberbatch
- Lead Tester: Peter O'Brien
- Special Thanks: Kenji Miyawaki, Masaya Saida, Hiroshi Kandou, Erika Aihara, Hiroshi Sengoku, Shigenobu Iga, Toshirou Sasaki, Izumi Saito, Yasuyo Kudo, Tatsuya Ohmachi, Masayoshi Takatori, Shinji Otsuka
- Director: Shinichi Yoshino
- Assistant Director: Shigeki Terajima
- Debug Management: Takayuki Suzuki, Yutaka Kawasaki, Masaki Harada, Kenji Yamane, Shinichiro Inoue, Masaaki Somaki, Motokazu Tsubono, Masaichi Taira
- Debug Foremen: Kenichiro Suizu, Yuji Nakamura, Yousuke Ito, Masaki Takahashi, Hirokazu Toyoshima
- Debuggers: Seiichi Kawasaki, Kazutaka Otsuka, Atsushi Miyamoto, Daisuke Hosogi, Youichi Maruta, Junji Enomoto, Kazuya Sakamoto, Takuma Sato, Hidetoshi Oota, Hitoshi Nishimura, Takayuki Hirano, Shinya Fujita, Hiroshi Matsui, Takayuki Yanagishita, Ken Kaneko, Mayuko Mizomoto, Masahiro Ito, Hiromi Miura, Yusuke Matsui, Makiko Arii, Kazunari Tajima, Masaki Sakamoto, Teruhito Uchida, Akiko Nishida, Taiji Ochiai, Masashi Yamakawa, Naoyuki Harada, Makoto Sakuma, Masaaki Motohashi, Kazumi Kikawa, Takeshi Yokoyama, Masayuki Baba, Noriaki Tanaka, Satoshi Yamagata, Hisanaga Toriumi, Koichiro Mizutani, Makoto Tanaka, Seiji Hirasawa, Akihiko Chatani, Kyouichi Hashimoto, Naoto Numata, Rie Yokohama, Kazuhiro Aida, Daisuke Saito, Takuma Akiba, Kiyokazu Arai, Takashi Yuki, Hiroaki Muguchi, Yukihiro Kawakami, Ryo Kobayashi, Hideaki Koike, Ken Sato, Kyouji Yokomichi, Shinpei Fukasawa, Yuji Nagatomo, Tatsuya Suzuki, Toshiro Nemoto, Yutaka Watai, Masashi Wakabayashi, Yasuhiro Ide, Yusuke Suzuki, Tatsuya Fukumura, Yusuke Baba, Tmoya Nakamura, Yoshitaki Ito, Gouma Enomoto, Tomohiro Hata, Hiryu Aoki, Kazuhiro Agata, Tatsuaki Tsujimoto, Takumi Murai, Yoshikazu Nagai, Kim Chun Gun, Isamu Kimura, Junichi Mitsuma, Takeya Kojima, Shinichi Naito, Rie Onozeki, Koichi Hagiwara, Wataru Taguchi, Takayuki Ishii, Yuichi Yonetani, Yuuta Sasaki, Syuichi Takeuci, Yusuke Utsunomiya, Tomoaki Abe, Noritugu Hironaka, Gen Tonotsuka, Kenta Tsuruoka, Shin Nakazawa, Satoru Morita, Tsunenori Ushiama, Hiroyuki Ono, Daisuke Orio, Noritaka Kumagai, Ryosuke Itabashi, Akira Nakamura, Shinichi Nishiyama, Kentarou Mine, Hiroyuki Kondoh, Shunsuke Satoh, Jin Suganami, Taishi Tsukiji, Katsuhiko Morihiro, Fumio Yusa, Keisuke Yoda, Satoshi Asakawa, Hideyuki Okano, Nobuaki Ihara, Satoshi Kamekawa, Kazuya Kojima, Kengo Tominaga, Mitsuhiro Haneishi, Hiroaki Yukawa, Tomoya Kubo, Toshiaki Kurihara, Kenji Akagi, Tomoko Koyama, Benjie Galvez, Lindsi Kimizuka, Chris Meyer, Paulita Escalona, Ed Brady, Rick Ribble, Gabrielle Brown, Steve Peck, Joe Gora, Todd Slepian, Keehwan Her, Benjamin Daniels, Joshua Schaaf, Anita Wisniewski, Nicholas J. Schaaf
- Director: Shigeru Ueda
- Promotion Coordinator: Yasushi Nakajima
- Publicity Section Manager: Ai Kotani
- Publicity Staff: Akemi Shimizutani, Chiaki Yagi, Utako Okukawa
- Publicity Designers: Akira Yamanaka, Kazunori Oh, Mayumi Horisawa
- Assistant Designers: Kanae Saitoh, Ryouko Raita, Hideyuki Kurose, Taku Kihara
- Video Recording: Motoyuki Okus
- Marketing Producer: Kunihisa Ueno
- Marketing Manager: Kenichi Sato
- Marketing Director: Seijiro Sannabe
- Marketing Coordinator: Toyohisa Hiwatari
- Executive Marketing Producer: Hideki Okamura
- Main Scenario: Tetsuya Mizuguchi, Soichi Ueda
- Free Scenario: Shunsuke Ozawa, Retsu Iwakata, Takashi Tsuzuki, Kenichi Tomizawa, Kotaro Iizuka, Etsuo Hashimoto, Masaru Takeuchi, Tikashi Nakajima, Nobuyuki Kato, Atsushi Kameo, Ryuji Arai, Midoro Ito, Hideki Inaba
- Script Writers: Takashi Nagasaki, Katsuyoshi Ogawa, Junji Suzuki, Shinji Miyagi, Satoshi Suzuki, Hidenori Aizawa, Tadashi Mitsuya, Hideyuki Shimoyama, Kouichi Kuriyama
- Planners: Hiroaki Kubo, Myonho Kin, Hisatomo Tanaka, Masato Izumi, Tetsuya Kawabata, Youichi Shibuya, Manabu Tsukamoto, Nobukatsu Hiranoya, Hideyuki Togashi, Gaku Inada, Daisuke Sugihara, Tsuyoshi Tsugami, Goro Motohashi, Yuji Watanabe, Yukinobu Arikawa, Takashi Ishii
- System Programmers: Satoshi Mifune, Takashi Amani, Kentaro Fujita, Yuichiro Mine, Hiroshi Yamada, Akimasa Tako, Mahito Kida, Tomoharu Yanase, Masaru Hatsuyama, Toshiyuki Kuwabara, Tsuyoshi Kogata, Nariya Takemura, Takuya Nagami, Hiroyuki Oda, Shinya Sato, Tsutomu Kondou, Shinya Yamada, Hiroki Matsui
- Event System Programmers: Shojiro Aoki, Hiroshi Takahashi, Hiroshi Mizuochi, Daisuke Iwata, Kenichi Yokoo, Kei Takashima, Hajime Sawada, Masato Hagishita, Mario Ikeda, Takeshi Kurosawa, Shuntaro Takazawa, Yoshiaki Tanaka
- Image Board Designers: Koichi Ohata, Jin Fukuchi, Akiyoshi Harada, Masaki Koizumi
- Character Designer: Mika Tamura
- Assistant 2D Graphics Designer: Shuma Fujiwara
- 3D Character Designers: Jyunko Kawamura, Yukiko Tsuzuki, Hajime Matsubara, Yusuke Takagi, Katsuo Sano, Jeffery Buchanan
- 3D Back Ground Designers: Mika Ninomiya, Tsuyoshi Okahisa, Makoto Kawatori, Keisuke Miyauchi, Hiroko Mano, Jun Satake, Hiroyuki Kabuto, Katsuhumi Yoshimori, Tetsuji Hayakawa, Masafumi Hatanaka, Keisuke Shimizu, Takayuki Ebata, Jyunichi Kashiwagi
- Motion Designers: Hiroyuki Nakagomi, Kiyohiko Yamashita, Makoto Wada, Kouji Ootsuka, Yuuri Ohtake, Chien-Sen Peng, Kouji Shinozaki, Michiko Osaki, Masashige Hiranuma, Kazuhiko Takeshita, Kazuaki Arai, Naoaki Tasaka
- Motion Camera & Animations: Eugene P. Lynch, Mike Bendele, Hiroaki Ohta
- Motion Camera Supervisor: Kazuya Konaka
- Motion Capture Director: Ryu Kaneda
- Motion Capture Staff: Kouzo Tamura, Takeshi Suzuki, Kazuo Kawasaki, Takashi Sasaki, Fumiko Yoshida, Yukihisa Saito, Hiroshi Ichimaru, Ayako Akitaya, Chieko Muto, Takahiro Suzuki, Takuma Hatori, Koki Yamamoto, Yu Inatuki, Yoshimi Aikawa, Isao Iwakuma
- Sound & Music: Akiko Hashimoto, Ryoko Okada, Shingo Murakami, Tadahiro Nitta, Yayoi Okumura, Naoto Nagai, Fumio Ito, Shinichirou Miki, Yasuhide Takeuchi
- Publicity Section: Jun Kasahara
- Technical Research Section: Yoshifusa Hayama
- Material Support: Qi Ning, Shunichi J. Watanabe
- Production Assistants: Yaeko Ichikawa, Yasuko Ohtani, Chizuru Ohtani, Miwako Watanabe, Akiko Wada, Kinya Ishikawa
- Production Managers: Junichi Tsuchiya
- Assistant Production Managers: Sadako Hattori, Takami Shibasaki
- JAY FILM Producer: Shuichi Kakesu
- JAY FILM Assistant Producer: Soutaro Maeda
- JAY FILM Editor: Tsuyoshi Imai
- JAY FILM Assistant Editors: Yayoi Otake, Youko Kobayashi, Shigeo Miyagi, Junichi Ito
- JAY FILM Supervisor: Masahiko Nagasawa
- Digital Design Studio Producer: Mitsunori Kabashima
- Digital Design Studio Designers: Yujiro Hato, Hiroki Ogino, Chihiro Miyagawa, Takeshi Nakayama
- Think Inc. Producer: Hiroaki Takeuchi
- Think Inc. Staff: Mika Sato, Hajime Yoshida, Yasunori Inoue, Emiko Fujiki, Shinya Kobayashi, Katsuichiro Ishikawa
- 81 Entertainment Executive Promotion Producer: Yasushi Akimoto
- 81 Entertainment Promotion Managers: Masatoshi Kawaguchi, Mitsuru Takahashi
- 81 Entertainment Promotion Coordinator: Shunichi Kobayashi
- Dentsu Promotion Coordinators: Hiroyuki Kurihara, Seikichi Ueda
- Dentsu Creative Director: Yuya Furukawa
- Dentsu Promotion Planner: Kazunori Kase
- Dentsu Event Planner: Daigorou Nishimura
- Dentsu Tec Event Directors: Hiromitsu Watanabe, Chikanori Higurashi
- Promotion: AOI Studio Co. Ltd., Digital Media Lab, Inc., Digital System, Libero, NHK Enterprises 21, Inc., Polydor K.K, Sega Music Network Co. Ltd., Studio 4?, Tsutaya, Minoru Takahashi Design Room, Tetorapdtransthorty
- Acotors/Actresses & Extra: AC Factary, Phoenix, Toho Gakuen, Wild Stunt Team, Animex Company, Central Children's Talent Co. Ltd., Himitsukiti, Kaimonkensya, Mantle Pudding Theater, Tokyo Orange
- Costumes & Properties: Nouveie Vague, Toho E-B Co. Ltd., From Up, Mindoll
- Voice: 81 Produce, Artsvision, Haikyo, Half Hp Studio Co. Ltd, Magic Capsule Co. Ltd, MBA Corporation, Motoko Inagawa Office, Office Chk, Osawa Office, Production Baobab, Ezaki Production
- Production: 2D6G, Advanced Technology & Information, Ancient, ASCII Corporation, Aspect, Avant Inc., Biox Co. Ltd, Compozila, Creek & River Co. Ltd, CSK Research Institute Corp., DigitalScape Co. Ltd, Eathly Production Inc., Elseware Ltd., H.I.C. Co. Ltd., I.T.L Corporation, I4 Corporation, Intelligence Ltd., Itec, Media Desgin & Art Ltd., Media Entertainment, Microcabin Corp., MRM, Muse The Staff, NeverLand Co. Ltd., Nextech Corporation, Office C.A Planning, One World, Phant, Receuit Staffing Co. Ltd., Scarab, Sims Co. Ltd., Succeed, System Sacom Corporation, Taki Design Laboratory, Thunderztone Japan Ltd., Toshiba Emi, T's Music, Westone, Arc System Works Co. Ltd., Dreams Co. Ltd., EPL Production Inc., Fukushina Sound Corporation, Garguyle Mechanics Inc., Highway Star Co. Ltd., Media Junge Corp, Ouinet Co. Ltd., Rutubo Game, Sound Box, Ternpdaff Co. Ltd.
- Development Tools: Avid Japan K.K, Hitachi, Ltd, Nec Corporation, Sgi Japan Ltd., Sielectronics Ltd., Softimage Inc., Yamaha Corporation, ADX, MPEG Sofdec, ROFS
- The Up With: Timex, Case Logic, Sumitomo Bank, Coca-Cola
- Created By: Sega AM2
- Presented by: Sega
- Source: In-game credits
- Main article: Shenmue/Magazine articles.
|Sega Retro Average|
| Based on|
In Shenmue, the backgrounds consist of up to 58,000 polygons, while the characters can have up to 14,361 polygons per character. This was significantly higher than the polygon counts of non-Dreamcast console and PC games in 1999. In comparison, the highest polygon counts of any PC games in 1999 were 10,000 polygons per scene and 400 polygons per character.
- Press release: 2000-11-07: Experience the Music of a Masterpiece With 'Shenmue Limited Edition'; Special Edition of Anticipated Dreamcast Game -- Shenmue -- Includes CD Containing Original Musical Scores
- File:CVG UK 230.pdf, page 85
- File:SegaMagazin DE 85.pdf, page 7
- Interview: Yu Suzuki (2014-09-18) by Shenmue Dojo
- File:NextGeneration US 51.pdf, page 23
- File:NextGeneration US 52.pdf, page 24
- File:Edge UK 082.pdf, page 40
- File:DreamcastMagazine UK 01.pdf, page 34
- File:Arcade UK 07.pdf, page 14
- File:NextGeneration US 58.pdf, page 37
- File:Edge UK 072.pdf, page 14
- File:DreamcastMonthly UK 08.pdf, page 12
- File:DreamcastMagazine UK 03.pdf, page 16
- File:DreamcastMagazine UK 04.pdf, page 10
- File:Edge UK 080.pdf, page 132
- File:NextGeneration US 58.pdf, page 34
- Location model
- Tree model
- Nozomi model
- Ryo model
- Interview: Jeremy Blaustein (2010-03-31) by GameSetWatch
- Press release: 2001-10-12: Microsoft Announces Leading Sega Games for Xbox
- File:ConsolesPlus FR 097.pdf, page 78
- File:CVG UK 230.pdf, page 84
- File:DCM JP 20000107 2000-01.pdf, page 26
- File:Dorimaga JP 20021011 2002-18.pdf, page 33
- File:Edge UK 092.pdf, page 86
- File:GameplayRPG FR 04.pdf, page 48
- File:Hyper AU 088.pdf, page 40
- File:ODCM US 08.pdf, page 56
- PC Magazine, December 1999, page 203
- Unreal Modeling Guide, Unreal Developer Network